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UCA - BIOL 4351 - Study Guide - Midterm

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UCA - BIOL 4351 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: University of Central Arkansas
Department: Biology
Course: Pharmacology
Professor: Martin
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: pharmacology
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This is an outline of all of our notes
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
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background image Pharmakokinetics What the body does in response to a drug Pharacodynamics  What the drug does to the body It all starts with administration How you give a patient a drug Enteral Administration  o By way of the GI tract
o Most common form is oral
o Others are:
Sublingual Rectal Feeding tube Parenteral Administration o By way other than the GI tract
o Some include
IV venous IA arterial IM muscular SQ subcutaneous (insulin for example) Other Administration o Transdermal Nicotine patch Topical creme o Inhaler Inhalation  Rapid response IV, inhaler…. Both go to direct contact Benefits of oral administration o Easy 
o Noninvasive
Downside o Takes longer to work
o Takes time to absorb
When rectal? o Throwing up IV benefits o Rapid results
o Immediately in the blood stream
Risks o Bleeding 
o Infection because the skin is breaking
Fiving drug in target area helps to target the tissue and 
minimize side effects
1 st  you will administer an agent
background image 2 nd  the drug has to be absorbed what factors influence drug absorption?  o Q (blood flow) At the site of absorptions if there is not enough 
blood flow, there will be trouble absorbing the 
drug
o BV  Dehydration leads to a decreased blood 
volume which leads to a decrease in blood flow
When given orally you run the risk of 
dehydration leading to poor absorption
o Route of administration Some drug are okay to take a long time to 
absorb, but IV or IA is used when there is a 
need for rapid absorption
o Solubility of the drug Lipid vs. water Lipid soluble agents cross bilayer more readily 
than water soluble agents because they go 
through the cell membranes 
o Degree of ionization Is it charged or uncharged Uncharged cross more readily than charged do Charged still cross, it is just more difficult If the pH is less than the pka, then the 
protonated form of the drug is predominant 
Protonated means the H form, so weak 
acid HA and weak base BH +
HA is uncharged, BH+ is charged You would want mostly charged if you are 
trying to pee off or get rid of a drug, you would 
want uncharged if you are trying to absorb the 
drug
background image Efficacy o The physiological effect on the patient
o What does the drug do
o What does the drug make the body do
Potency o Refers to the dose of the drug that yields an effect Most drugs produce their effect by binding to specific receptors Agonists o Affinity and efficacy
o Recognizes a receptor and binds to a receptor and then 
produces an effect Antagonists o Affinity
o Will only bind to a receptor
o What this drug is doing is blocking the receptors so that an 
agonist cannot bind to the receptor, eliminating the effect
background image ANS- Autonomic Nervous System o Typically involuntary impulses SNS- Somatic nervous system o Voluntary motor component  ANS o Heart Heart rate  Contractility Influences BP and Q o Smooth Muscle Contraction  Relaxation o Glands Produces secretion  Increases or decreases secretion from the gland  o Smooth Muscle GI smooth (digestive system) GU smooth (urinary and reproductive system) Bronchial (airways) Vascular smooth muscle o In regard to the GI and GU CTX increases activity RLX decreases activity o In regard to vascular and smooth CTX closing a tube- constriction RLX- opening a tube- dilation o Sympathetic Flight of fight Increased HR and myocardial contractility Primarily relaxes smooth muscle except vascular 
smooth muscle 
Dilates airways and pupils Decreases GI and GU activity o Parasympathetic Rest and digest decreases HR and contractility contracts smooth muscle except vascular smooth 
muscle
stimulates gland secretion Increased GI and GU activity

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School: University of Central Arkansas
Department: Biology
Course: Pharmacology
Professor: Martin
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: pharmacology
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This is an outline of all of our notes
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
13 Pages 32 Views 25 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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