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TOWSON / History / HIST 202 / How did cities originate?

How did cities originate?

How did cities originate?

Description

Cities of the Ancient World Sep 13 and Sep 14


How did cities originate?



Brief review of previous class

∙ How did cities originate

o Ceremonial

▪ Originated because of religion

o Economic

▪ Originated through control of trade routes

o Redistribution

▪ Cities originated as centers for the redistribution of goods throughout the  

surrounding areas  

∙ How do the elites get power?

o Economic Sources  

o Military Sources

o Ideological Sources  

o Political Sources

∙ The first city developed in South Mesopotamian alluvium (type of soil created from centuries of  rivers depositing soil and nutrients through flooding into the surrounding area) ∙ These cities developed in an area below 250mm of yearly rainfall which is the minimum to  sustain rainfall agriculture, the way this problem was solved by the development of irrigation ∙ Uruk Period  


How do the elites get power?



o Tell el Ouelli Culture (5500 BCE)

▪ The first settlement (Was not a city) in southern Mesopotamia If you want to learn more check out What is the matlab?

o Tell Ubaid Culture (5900-4000BCE) We also discuss several other topics like What is the relationship between style and culture?

▪ First culture in Mesopotamia that is attested in both the north and the south  ▪ The material culture from the end of the Ubaid period was found it parts of  turkey, and south of Mesopotamia  

▪ Temples from this era share similar characteristics  

▪ Houses from this era share similar characteristics  

▪ Believed to be egalitarian but some scholars suggest the presence of temples  suggests the framework of social stratification

▪ Despite fired pottery appearing around 8millenial BCE the pottery wheel was  developed during the end of this period  


What is the first settlement (was not a city) in southern mesopotamia?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the cold air standard?

∙ Timeline

o 10,000: Development of agriculture and animal husbandtry  

o 8,000: Pottery developed  

o 7,000: Irrigation

o Slow movement of people to the south

o 5500: First southern settlement

o Emergence of temples  

o Intro of potter’s wheel

o 4000: Uruk

∙ Warka/Uruk/Unug (All the same location but going by different names)

o 5,000 BC to 2000 CE  

o Spanned an area of 70hectacres Don't forget about the age old question of Why is the documentary called slavery by another name?

Cities of the Ancient World Sep 13 and Sep 14

o Demographic explosion during this time  

▪ Explained by nomadic or semi nomadic people choosing to settle  

o City was made of two towns  

▪ Uruuk and kullaba  

o There was max production of textiles, metals, pottery, and art

∙ We had a brainstorm here about the paper we had to write

∙ Discussion of the architecture of the temples  Don't forget about the age old question of How does globalization affect local and global culture?
If you want to learn more check out How does cholesterol affect membrane fluidity?

o The Ianna district is preserved

▪ Patron dieties, An and Inana

▪ Multiple openings  

▪ Cone decorations  

▪ Plated fabric on the walls for decoration

▪ Emphasis on outside areas  

∙ Technological changes associated with the Uruk period  

o Mass production of pottery  

o Stone vessles (Warka vase)

o Increased use of metals

o Wheel made pottery  

o Cylinder seals  

o Long fields with canals on the shorter end  

o Invention of the seed plow (pulled by animals) : Preps ground for planting and deposits  seeds  

o Clay and flint sickles

o Writing  

∙ Reconstruction

o Multiple economic niches

o Technological innovations

o Specialization of labor  

o Social stratification  

o A need for a central power

o The emergence of cities

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