Ethics Test 2 Study Guide
Ethics Test 2 Study Guide PHIL 160
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julian Torian on Saturday March 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 160 at Kansas taught by Ben Eggleston in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 433 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 03/28/15
Intro to Ethics Test 2Study Guide Julian Torian Topics to study for the test Ethical Egoism Utilitarianism Kant s Moral Theory Feminist Ethics Ethical Egoism 4 multiple choice 1 shortanswer 1 Ethical Egoism along with the other topics on the test are a part of Normative Ethics De ne Normative Ethics What is the main difference between consequentialism and nonconsequentialism Which one does Ethical Egoism and Utilitarianism fall under Ethical Egoism says that the right thing to do is One of the main issues with Ethical Egoism is that it fails to solve moral con ict For example say two people want something really bad but only one of them can have it Ethical Egoism implies The most common argument in support of ethical egoism is that if people look out for themselves then everything will turn out okay for everyone How can this be an issue Utilitarianism 4 multiple choice 2 short answer 6 Utilitarianism says that an act is right if and only if 7 Utilitarianism is often associated with the phrase The greatest happiness of the greatest number What is the main issue with this phrase 8 Along with being a consequentialist view Utilitarianism is also a focused view 9 De ne these terms a Utility b Marginal Utility c Diminishing Marginal Utility 10 When considering the hypothetical transplant case what is the doctor required to do according to Utilitarianism How can this be an issuenot be an issue Kant39s Moral Theory 4 multiple choice 2 short answer 11 What is the major difference between a hypothetical imperative and a categorical imperative Why is this so signi cant 12 quotAn act is right if and only if its outcome is universalizablequot which one of Kant s formulations does this statement apply to 13 quotAn act is right if and only if it treats everyone as an end and no one as a mere meansquot Which one of Kant s formulation does this statement apply to 14 What are some of the major issues concerning these two formulations 15 Kant has several other formulations similar to these two that he considers the same statement Why is this an issue regarding the validity of these formulations Feminist Ethics 4 multiple choice 1 short answer 16 De ne Feminism 17 What are the 3 most important eras for feminism How are each era different 18 Why is there no set principle to go along with feminist ethics 19 Consider this statement quotAn act is right if and only if it results in more caring overall than any other actquot Why is this not an acceptable principle to apply to feminist ethics 20 What is the main difference between Carol Gilligan and Kohlberg s views on feminism Answer Sheet 1 Normative Ethics is a part of ethics where we attempt to identify a principle that will say what action is right in any situation 2 Consequentialism says that the morality of our actions is entirely determined by their consequences whereas nonconsequentialism says that the morality of our actions is NOT entirely determined by our actions Ethical Egoism and Utilitarianism both fall under consequentialism 3 The right thing for a person to do is whatever advances his or her interests 4 Ethical Egoism implies that both of them should take it thus not solving their con ict 5 It rests on the idea that things turning out well for everyone such as criminals terrorist etc is a good goal 6 it results in at least as much wellbeing as any alternative action 7 L000 The problem with this phrase is that Utilitarianism is just concerned with the greatest happiness and no information is provided with the latter part of the phrase Wellbeingfocused view Utility the bene t someone gets from something Marginal Utility the bene t someone gets from an extra or additional increment of something Diminishing Marginal Utility when successive additional increment of something are worth less and less 10 According to Utilitarianism the doctor would be required to perform the surgery on the healthy man to heal the sick This would be an issue in the real world because the doctor killing an innocent man to save 5 others would bring about way more consequences than solutions to the problem 11 Hypothetical imperatives are commands that apply to you in the condition that you have a certain goal whereas categorical imperatives are commands that apply to you regardless of whether you have a speci c goal or not This is signi cant because all moral judgements are categorical imperatives 12 The Universallaw formulation 13 The Humanityasanendinitself formulation 14 The main problem with the universallaw formulation is that it is based only on whether the main action is consistent or not and does not have any external checks wellbeing freedom justice etc in regards to the kind of goal the person is aiming at The humanityasanendinitself formulation only applies to individuals who are rational and autonomous This excludes many people and nonhuman animals who are capable of feeling pleasure and pain 15 What makes Kant s formulations so hard to verify is that they are written in very abstract language Also they tend to use very different concepts 16 Feminism the movements of thought and activism aimed at establishing equal rights for women 17 First Wave 19th and early 20th century Aimed at establishing equal rights under law such as the right to vote Second Wave Latter half of 20th century Educational and workplace equality equal college access equal pay rules against sexual harassment etc Third Wave Late 20th century to present More concerned with racial diversity economic diversity transgender issues etc 18 Feminist ethics in general denies the possibility of formulating a single moral principle 19 This is one way of putting care into a moral principle but one should aim at more than just the attitude of caring 20 Kohlberg believed that men s way of thinking was superior to that of women s While Carol acknowledged the differences between men and women s way of thinking she disagrees with his idea that Women s way of thinking is inferior
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