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UF - ANAT 2100 - Class Notes - Week 4

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UF - ANAT 2100 - Class Notes - Week 4

School: University of Florida
Department: Anatomy
Course: Applied Human Anatomy With Laboratory
Professor: Joslyn Ahlgren
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: bones, and, Skeletal, and tissues
Name: APK2100C Chapter 6 Outline
Description: These notes are a detailed outline of the Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues textbook pages 123-140
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
0 5 3 61 Reviews
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background image September 13, 2016 CHAPTER 6: BONES AND SKELETAL
TISSUES (P. 123-140)
1.  INTRODUCTION A.  Skeletal System forms internal framework; composed of: i.  Bones ii.  Cartilages iii.  Joints B.  Bones provide: i.  support and shape for body ii.  attachment sites for muscles iii.  storage depot for essential minerals C.  Cartilage i.  Part of numerous joints ii.  Helps support and movement while cushioning bone surfaces that are rubbing
each other
D.  Cartilage and Bone i.  Linked developmentally
1.  Majority of bones formed in cartilage tissue, then replaces by bone tissue
during prenatal and childhood development E.  Skeletal System contains clues to personal story i.  Bones and skeletal tissues reflect:
1.  Age
2.  Gender
3.  Ethnicity
4.  Height
5.  Health
6.  Nutrition status
2.  CARTILAGES
background image 2 A.  Location ad Basic Structures i.  Cartilage:
1.  In external ear
2.  In nose
3.  Articular Cartilages- cover ends of most bones and movable joints
4.  Costal Cartilages- connect ribs to sternum
5.  In larynx, including epiglottis (a flap preventing food from going into the
larynx and lungs) 6.  That keeps the respiratory system’s air tubes open
7.  Located between the discs between the vertebrae
8.  In the pubic symphysis
9.  That form articular discs within particular movable joints ie, the
meniscus in the knee ii.  Greatly more abundant in the embryo than adult iii.  Typical cartilaginous structure in skeleton is:
1.   made up of connective tissue cartilage that is avascular and not
innervated 2.  surrounded by the perichondrium (a layer of dense irregular CT) serving as a girdle to protect the cartilage from expanding outward when
pressure is applied; also aids in the growing and repairing of cartilage
iv.  mainly composed of water, being about 60% to 80% H2O v.  extremely resilient, able to spring back to initial shape following compression B.  Types of Cartilage i.  3 types:
1.  hyaline
2.  elastic
3.  fibrocartilage
ii.  all cartilage is CT that contains chondrocytes and lots of extracellular matrix
(ground substance)
iii.  each chondrocyte is located in a lacuna- a designated space within the
extracellular matrix
iv.  extracellular matrix composed of fibers and gel like ground substance formed
with complex sugar molecules, used to attract and hold water
v.  Hyaline Cartilage
1.  Appearance of frosted glass
2.  Most abundant
3.  Chondrocytes look spherical
4.  Collagen fibril is only fiber
background image 3 a.  Forms networks not visible with a light microscope because of how tiny 5.  Holds lots of water à tissue is excellent at putting up with compression
6.  Delivers support with its flexibility and resilience
7.  Composes articular cartilage that covers ends of abutting bones in
movable joints 8.  Makes up most cartilage in respiratory structures
9.  Helps to form embryonic skeleton
10. Makes the cartilaginous attachments of the ribs to the sternum
C.  Elastic Cartilage i.  Similar to above ii.  Contains collagen fibrils plus numerous elastic fibers iii.  Better able to handle repeated bending iv.  Composes epiglottis (opening of larynx) and the most bendable sections of the
external ear
D.  Fibrocartilage i.  Resists both intense tension and compression forces ii.  Found in particular ligaments and cartilages which experience these forces iii.  Comparatively a middle ground between hyaline cartilage and dense regular CT iv.  Collagen fibrils v.  Specifically in annulus fibrous section of discs between vertebrae and articular
discs of some joint
E.  Growth of Cartilage i.  2 types of growth:
1.  appositional growth à growth from inside out
a.  chondroblasts in surrounding perichondrium make new cartilage tissue through active secretion of matrix 2.  interstitial growth à “growth from within” a.  chondrocytes within cartilage separate and make new matrix ii.  grows fast during prenatal development, childhood, and adolescence iii.  ceases growth in late teen years when skeleton stops iv.  thus cartilage does not regenerate well in adulthood
1.  typically, cartilage is then repaired with fibrocartilage
2.  surviving chondrocytes are able to secrete more extracellular matrix
v.  *occasionally, crystals of calcium phosphate precipitate in to matrix of the
cartilage, which indicates aging in adults; normal stage in child’s growth of
majority of bones
vi.  ** calcified cartilage is NOT bone

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School: University of Florida
Department: Anatomy
Course: Applied Human Anatomy With Laboratory
Professor: Joslyn Ahlgren
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: bones, and, Skeletal, and tissues
Name: APK2100C Chapter 6 Outline
Description: These notes are a detailed outline of the Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues textbook pages 123-140
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
11 Pages 54 Views 43 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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