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BIOL 307 - Study Guide

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BIOL 307 - Study Guide

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background image Exam One Study Guide Introduction and Orientation We talked about seven levels of organization. What are the differences 
between these levels, especially cellular, tissue, organ, and organ system?
Body Planes- Sagittal Plane- Cuts the body right in half in a vertical position.
Parasagittal- Cuts the body vertically down the half of the sagittal plane.
Transverse Plane- Cuts the body in half horizontally 
Frontal Plane- Cuts the body into posterior and Anterior
Anatomical directions- Superior & Inferior- superior is higher than the inferior
Medial- Closest to the middle of the body 
Lateral- Farther away from the middle of the body
Superficial- outer part of the body. (The skin is superficial to the arteries)
Deep- closer to the inside of the body. (The heart is deeper than the ribs)
Anatomical movements –  Flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, rotation, 
supination, neutral, pronation, circumduction, elevation, depression, 
protraction, retraction, eversion, inversion, dorsal flexion, and plantar flexion
Body cavities – 
what are the major cavities? 
-Dorsal cavity
- Ventral cavity
Which ones are part of the dorsal body cavity Cranial, vertebral cavity.  which ones are part of the ventral body cavity? -Thoracic cavity
-Abdominopelvic Cavity
Abdominal cavity Pelvic Cavity What separates these cavities from one another?  The Diaphragm What would you find in each of these cavities?  Dorsal cavity: Brain Spinal Cord Ventral Cavity: Heart Lungs Mediastinum o Heart and its great vessels 
o Esophagus
o Trachea
o Thoracic duct
o thymus
background image Gall bladder Stomach Spleen Pancreas Small intestine Parts of large intestine Rest of colon  Rectum Urinary bladder Reproductive organ What are serous membranes?  Line surfaces that DO NOT open to the outside
Made of connective & epithelial tissue
What are the names of the membranes in each cavity? Parietal Layer- attaches to the cavity walls.
Visceral layer- attaches to the organ. 
 Which ones line the walls of the cavities,  Parietal Pleura: covers walls or thoracic cavity
Parietal Pericardium: lines the pericardial cavity
Parietal Peritoneum: Lines abdominopelvic cavity wall. 
 which ones line the organs in the cavity? Visceral pleura: covers the surface of the lungs
Visceral Pericardium: covers the heart
Visceral Peritoneum: lines organs. (Mesentery)
Organ systems – what are the major organ systems?
What is the function of each system? 
What are some components of each system?
1. Integumentary System; protects internal structures from damage and  dehydration, stores fat, vitamins and hormones a. Skin
b. Hair
c. Nails
d. Sense receptors (pain, pressure, touch ect)
e. Sweat glands
f. Sebaceous (oil) glands
2. Musculoskeletal; Support, protection, movement a. Bones
b. Joints
c. Ligaments, tendons, cartilage
d. Muscles (voluntary, involuntary, cardiac)
3. Endocrine; maintains growth and homeostasis within the body.  a. Pituitary gland
b. Pineal gland
c. Hypothalamus
d. Thyroid gland
e. Parathyroid gland
f. Thymus gland
g. Adrenal glands
h. Pancreas
background image i. Ovaries
j. Testes
4. Nervous system; monitor and coordinate function, respond to  environmental stimuli. a. Brain
b. Spinal cord
c. Nerves
d. Sense organs
5. Cardiovascular; transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues. a. Heart
b. Blood vessels
6. Lymphatic; collect and transport excess tissue fluid and defend against disease a. Lymph nodes
b. Lymphatic vessels
c. Thymus
d. Spleen
7. Respiratory; provide body with oxygen via gas exchange with the  outside world a. Nose 
b. Pharynx
c. Larynx
d. Trachea 
e. Bronchi
f. Lungs
8. Digestive; breaks down food polymers to provide energy for the body a. Mouth 
b. Pharynx
c. Esophagus
d. Stomach 
e. Small/large intestine
f. Rectum & anal canal
9. Urinary system; elimination of waste; regulation of fluid and electrolyte volume a. Kidneys
b. Ureters
c. Urinary bladder
d. Urethra
10.Reproductive; enables the production of offspring through sexual  reproduction a. Male i. Gonads- testes ii. Vas deferens iii. Urethra iv. Prostate v. Penis and scrotum b. Female i. Gonads- ovaries ii. Uterus, uterine tubes (fallopian), vagina iii. Vulva
background image iv. Mammary glands Tissues What is a tissue? What makes it different from a cell, or an organ? Tissues are a group of cells working together to perform specific functions. 
Organs are two or more tissues working together to perform a function. 
What are the four main types of tissue? What are the main 
features/characteristics of each, and what are some places you would find 
each? What are the functions of each?
Epithelial: Covers body surfaces (skin), Lines Body Cavities(serosa), forms 
secretions (glands). Cells are tightly packed and have very little extracellular 
space. Epithelial tissue can be found in skin, gland etc.
Connective: Functions; protects/supports (bone, cartilage), 
transportation(blood) binds organs together (Tendons/ligaments), stores 
energy (fat).  Have lots of extra cellular space. 
Nervous: Main component of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral 
Nervous system (PNS). Also regulates and controls bodily functions and 
What are the six characteristics of epithelial tissue?  1. Cells are tightly packed and have very littler extracellular space.  (creates sheets) 2. All have specialized cell to cell contact a. Tight junctions
b. Desmosomes
c. Gap junctions
3. Avascular; causes tissue to be thin and top layer dies quickly, BUT has  high regeneration rate, (lack of blood supplyvulnerable to injury.  4. The tissue has polarity- cells have apical and basal ends a. Apical- uppermost surface of epithelial cell, usually exposed to  the lumen of an organ  b. Basal ends- bottom surface of epithelial cell. Exposed to a  basement membrane 5. Always connected to connective tissue via a basement membrane
6. Specialization of the apical surface.
a. Cilia; hair-like organelles. Can be found in nasal cavity and  oviducts b. Microvilli; extensions of plasma membrane. Can be found in  intestines, and kidney tubules.  Within this, you need to understand terms like desmosome, polarity, apical, 
basal, basement membrane, gap junctions, avascular, cilia, microvilli…..etc.
What are the four classes of epithelial tissue and what makes them 
different from one another? 
1. Simple- single layer of cells
2. Stratified- 2-20 layers (not all of which touch the basement 
membrane.) 3. Pseudostratified- single layer of cells (all cells touch Basement  membrane, but not all reach the surface) 4. Transitional- layer (s) of cells that expand What are the three shapes of epithelial cells?

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School: Winthrop University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anat & Physiology I
Professor: Boulware
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Ananatomy, Skeletal System, and Biology
Name: Bio 307 Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide is the one Dr. Boulware upload, but it is completely filled out.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
15 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
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