Bio 307 Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide
Bio 307 Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 307
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Walton on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 307 at Winthrop University taught by Dr. Boulware in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Human Anat & Physiology I in Biology at Winthrop University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Exam One Study Guide Introduction and Orientation We talked about seven levels of organization. What are the differences between these levels, especially cellular, tissue, organ, and organ system? Body Planes- Sagittal Plane- Cuts the body right in half in a vertical position. Parasagittal- Cuts the body vertically down the half of the sagittal plane. Transverse Plane- Cuts the body in half horizontally Frontal Plane- Cuts the body into posterior and Anterior Anatomical directions- Superior & Inferior- superior is higher than the inferior Medial- Closest to the middle of the body Lateral- Farther away from the middle of the body Superficial- outer part of the body. (The skin is superficial to the arteries) Deep- closer to the inside of the body. (The heart is deeper than the ribs) Anatomical movements – Flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, rotation, supination, neutral, pronation, circumduction, elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, eversion, inversion, dorsal flexion, and plantar flexion Body cavities – what are the major cavities? -Dorsal cavity - Ventral cavity Which ones are part of the dorsal body cavity Cranial, vertebral cavity. which ones are part of the ventral body cavity? -Thoracic cavity -Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic Cavity What separates these cavities from one another? The Diaphragm What would you find in each of these cavities? Dorsal cavity: Brain Spinal Cord Ventral Cavity: Heart Lungs Mediastinum o Heart and its great vessels o Esophagus o Trachea o Thoracic duct o thymus Liver Gall bladder Stomach Spleen Pancreas Small intestine Parts of large intestine Rest of colon Rectum Urinary bladder Reproductive organ What are serous membranes? Line surfaces that DO NOT open to the outside Made of connective & epithelial tissue What are the names of the membranes in each cavity? Parietal Layer- attaches to the cavity walls. Visceral layer- attaches to the organ. Which ones line the walls of the cavities, Parietal Pleura: covers walls or thoracic cavity Parietal Pericardium: lines the pericardial cavity Parietal Peritoneum: Lines abdominopelvic cavity wall. which ones line the organs in the cavity? Visceral pleura: covers the surface of the lungs Visceral Pericardium: covers the heart Visceral Peritoneum: lines organs. (Mesentery) Organ systems – what are the major organ systems? What is the function of each system? What are some components of each system? 1. Integumentary System; protects internal structures from damage and dehydration, stores fat, vitamins and hormones a. Skin b. Hair c. Nails d. Sense receptors (pain, pressure, touch ect) e. Sweat glands f. Sebaceous (oil) glands 2. Musculoskeletal; Support, protection, movement a. Bones b. Joints c. Ligaments, tendons, cartilage d. Muscles (voluntary, involuntary, cardiac) 3. Endocrine; maintains growth and homeostasis within the body. a. Pituitary gland b. Pineal gland c. Hypothalamus d. Thyroid gland e. Parathyroid gland f. Thymus gland g. Adrenal glands h. Pancreas i. Ovaries j. Testes 4. Nervous system; monitor and coordinate function, respond to environmental stimuli. a. Brain b. Spinal cord c. Nerves d. Sense organs 5. Cardiovascular; transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues. a. Heart b. Blood vessels 6. Lymphatic; collect and transport excess tissue fluid and defend against disease a. Lymph nodes b. Lymphatic vessels c. Thymus d. Spleen 7. Respiratory; provide body with oxygen via gas exchange with the outside world a. Nose b. Pharynx c. Larynx d. Trachea e. Bronchi f. Lungs 8. Digestive; breaks down food polymers to provide energy for the body a. Mouth b. Pharynx c. Esophagus d. Stomach e. Small/large intestine f. Rectum & anal canal 9. Urinary system; elimination of waste; regulation of fluid and electrolyte volume a. Kidneys b. Ureters c. Urinary bladder d. Urethra 10.Reproductive; enables the production of offspring through sexual reproduction a. Male i. Gonads- testes ii. Vas deferens iii. Urethra iv. Prostate v. Penis and scrotum b. Female i. Gonads- ovaries ii. Uterus, uterine tubes (fallopian), vagina iii. Vulva iv. Mammary glands Tissues What is a tissue? What makes it different from a cell, or an organ? Tissues are a group of cells working together to perform specific functions. Organs are two or more tissues working together to perform a function. What are the four main types of tissue? What are the main features/characteristics of each, and what are some places you would find each? What are the functions of each? Epithelial: Covers body surfaces (skin), Lines Body Cavities(serosa), forms secretions (glands). Cells are tightly packed and have very little extracellular space. Epithelial tissue can be found in skin, gland etc. Muscle: Connective: Functions; protects/supports (bone, cartilage), transportation(blood) binds organs together (Tendons/ligaments), stores energy (fat). Have lots of extra cellular space. Nervous: Main component of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous system (PNS). Also regulates and controls bodily functions and activity. What are the six characteristics of epithelial tissue? 1. Cells are tightly packed and have very littler extracellular space. (creates sheets) 2. All have specialized cell to cell contact a. Tight junctions b. Desmosomes c. Gap junctions 3. Avascular; causes tissue to be thin and top layer dies quickly, BUT has high regeneration rate, (lack of blood supplyvulnerable to injury. 4. The tissue has polarity- cells have apical and basal ends a. Apical- uppermost surface of epithelial cell, usually exposed to the lumen of an organ b. Basal ends- bottom surface of epithelial cell. Exposed to a basement membrane 5. Always connected to connective tissue via a basement membrane 6. Specialization of the apical surface. a. Cilia; hair-like organelles. Can be found in nasal cavity and oviducts b. Microvilli; extensions of plasma membrane. Can be found in intestines, and kidney tubules. Within this, you need to understand terms like desmosome, polarity, apical, basal, basement membrane, gap junctions, avascular, cilia, microvilli…..etc. What are the four classes of epithelial tissue and what makes them different from one another? 1. Simple- single layer of cells 2. Stratified- 2-20 layers (not all of which touch the basement membrane.) 3. Pseudostratified- single layer of cells (all cells touch Basement membrane, but not all reach the surface) 4. Transitional- layer (s) of cells that expand What are the three shapes of epithelial cells? 1. Squamous- flat scaly looking. 2. Cuboidal- cube 3. Columnar- tall, narrow, column Those classes and shapes can be combined to describe eight different types of epithelial tissue, where would you expect to find examples of each of these eight? 1. Simple Squamous- alveoli, blood vessels. 2. Simple Cuboidal- ovaries, kidney tubules, salivary glands. 3. Simple Columnar- Uterine tubes, digestive tract. 4. Stratified squamous- Skin, lining of esophagus, mouth, vagina. 5. Stratified Cuboidal- large glands, testies, ovaries 6. Stratified Columnar- pharynx, urethra 7. Pseudostratified Columnar- upper respiratory tract, some large glands. 8. Transitional- bladder, part of urethra, lining ureters What is a gland? One or more cells that make and secrete products or wastes. What are they formed from? Glands are composed of epithelial tissue with a framework and capsule made of connective tissue. What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands? Endocrine-produce horomones, secrete into bloodstream via exocytosis. Exocrine- secrete products onto body surfaces or into body cavities. What is the difference between alveolar and tubular glands? Aveolar glands- are more round Tubular- look more like a test tube. What is the difference between holocrine, apocrine and merocrine glands? Merocrine- exocytosis via vesicles. Most common type. Ex. Tears, pancreas, sweat glands. Holocrine- Entire cell disintegrates, releasing the secretion. Sebaceous glands, meibomian glands Apocrine- Bud their secretions off by portions of the membrane of the cells producing vesicles in the lumen. Ex. Mammary glands, axillary sweat glands Connective tissue – what are the characteristics of connective tissue? Within this you need to understand terms like extracellular, matrix, lacuna, fibers, etc. 1. All arise from a common embryonic tissue call mesenchyme. 2. Lots of extracellular space. Cells are widely scattered except in adipose tissue. 3. Matrix is a combination of fluid, gel-like substances and fibers. 4. HIGHLY vascularized- with the exception of cartilage. What are the differences between collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers? Collagen Fibers-Tough, flexible and resist stretching. Elastic Fibers- Ability to recoil after being stretched out. Reticular Fibers- Which ones are predominant in which types of connective tissues? Collagen fibers What are the differences between loose and dense connective tissues? Loose connective tissue- pretty much what it sounds like; has a lot of extracellular space. Dense connective tissue- has a ton of fibers and does not have as much extracellular space. What are the types of cells found in loose and dense connective tissue? Loose Tissue- Macrophages, fibroblasts, mast cells, and some WBC Dense Tissue- Fibroblasts What are the characteristics and functions of areolar, adipose, and reticular connective tissue? Name some places each is found. 1. Areolar Tissue a. Characteristics; underlies all epithelia. b. Function; acts like a sponge to soak up fluid (edema) c. Location- Widely distributed under epithelia of body. 2. Adipose Tissue a. Characteristics- space between cells contain all types of fibers. b. Function- Nutrient storage (white and brown fat), and anchors and cushions organs (white fat) c. Locations- In subcutaneous tissue; around kidneys and eyeballs, within abdomen and in breasts 3. Reticular Tissue a. Characteristics- Mesh of reticular fibers and fibroblasts b. Function- forms supportive framework for lymphatic organs. c. Locations-Lymphoid organs. (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen) What is the difference between regular, irregular and elastic connective tissue? Where are some places you would find each? Regular Dense tissue- densely packed, parallel collagen fibers. Can be found in ligaments and tendons. Irregular dense tissue- densely packed, random arranged collagen fibers. Can be found in joint capsules, sutures in the skull, part of dermis and external part of periosteum. Elastic Dense Tissue- Densely packed parallel fibers (in addition to collagen fibers) for stretching and retracting. Can be found in walls of large blood vessels, some ligaments of vertebral column, sensory ligaments of the penis. What is the difference between a ligament and a tendon? Tendons connect bone to muscle (Achilles tendon) Ligaments connect bone to bone (ACL, Anterior cruciate ligament) What two tissue types make up membranes? Connective Tissue and Epithelial Tissue Refer back to the first lecture for questions about serous membranes; what is the cutaneous membrane? Cutaneous membrane- skin- function is to protect What are mucous membranes? Lines surfaces that open to the outside. An organ Where are they found? What is their function? What makes them different from serous membranes? Serous membranes DO NOT open to the outside. What are the three types of cartilage? Where is each found? Which fibers are the found in each, and how does that affect their function? 1. Hyaline Cartilage- collagen and reticular fibers. Nose, larynx, trachea rings, ends of long bones. They are the most abundant in joints. 2. Fibrocartilage- Collagen fibers. They affect the function by being shock absorbers. Found in intervertebral discs, and menisci (knee) 3. Elastic Cartilage- Elastin fibers, and it allows locations to be rubbery and pliable. Found in ear and epiglottis. What types of cells do you find in cartilage? Chondroblasts Why does cartilage take longer to heal than other types of connective tissue? It takes a lot longer to heal because cartilage does not have a blood supply. Bone tissue – see more about this in bone tissue lecture Blood – what is the function of blood? O 2nd CO t2ansport, defense, clotting. What are its characteristics? What is the matrix in this particular type of connective tissue? 90% water What types of cells do you find in blood? RCBS (Erythrocytes) WBC (Leukocytes). Platelets (thrombocytes) Nervous tissue – what is a neuron? Branching nerve cells; cell processes that may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing call body. What are neuroglia? Glial cells; support and protect neurons (actually outnumber the neurons) Which cell type is responsible for transmitting and coordinating impulses through the body? Neurons What is the function of the other cells, the ones NOT responsible for transmitting impulses? Support and protect neurons. Muscle tissue – what are the three types of muscle tissue? What are the differences between the three types (striated/non-striated; single/multinucleate; voluntary/involuntary); what are some representative locations where you find each? 1. Smooth- non-striated, Involuntary, single nucleus. Locations- visceral muscles and walls of hollow contracting organs. 2. Skeletal- Striated, Voluntary, Multinucleate. Locations- large body muscles 3. Cardiac- Striated, Single nucleus, involuntary. Locations- only in the heart. What are intercalated discs, and why are they important? Intercalated discs- Branched cells that have special connections. They are important because Integumentary System What is the difference between skin and the integumentary system (think organ vs. organ system – what is the difference between these two levels of organization?) The Skin is the Epidermis and dermis which make up the organ “skin” The integumentary system includes all layers of the skin, but also hair, nails, and glands. What are the characteristics of the skin? Largest organ Protection Production of vitamin D Thermoregulation Millions of sensory inputs. What are the three regions of the integumentary system? 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis 3. Hypodermis Are all three regions part of the skin/cutaneous membrane? No only the Epidermis and dermis are part of the skin. Epidermis – what types of cells are found in the epidermis? What is the function of each cell type? Stem Cells- Give rise to keratinocytes. Keratinocytes- Produce keratin. Life cycle is 30-40 days Melanocytes- Contain melanin, only at the deepest layer and inject melanin into keratinocytes. Dendritic Cells (Langerhans Cells)- Immunologically active, antigen presenting. Merkel Cells- Sensitive to light touch. What are the layers of the epidermis? What are they in order from deep to superficial (or superficial to deep)? Superficial to deep 1. Stratum Corneum- flattened, dead keratinocytes. Barrier and protection. 2. Stratum Lucidum- Only in palms and soles (Thick skin) 3. Startum Granulosum- About 5 layers. Forms water barrier. 4. Stratum Spinosum- Keratinocytes shrink from lack of nutrients. Langerhans cells 5. Stratum Basale- One layer of simple cuboidal stem cells. Melanocytes aer 20% of the cells. Merkel Cells Are all layers found in all of the types of skin? No What types of cells are found in each of these layers? What happens to the keratinocytes as they are pushed up from the deepest layer to the surface? They die and the begin to become compact and creat the stratum Corneum. What is melanin? What is its function? Melanin is produced by melanocytes. How/why does it interfere with vitamin D production? Melanin is what gives skin the pigment, and having darker skin reduces the skin’s ability to produce vitamin D Why is vitamin D important? Vitamin D is important because it absorbs calcium and promotes bone growth. What is rickets? Rickets is the softening and weakening of the bones in children. How can melanin contribute to the development of rickets? Melanin prevents the body’s ability to produce vitamin D which in turn prevents the body from absorbing calcium and hardening the bone. How does the necessity to balance UV exposure and vitamin D contribute to the evolution of differences in human skin color? What actually produces these differences in color? Hair – what are the main structures of hair? Hair follicle Bulb Root Shaft Glands Arrector pili muscle What is an arrector pili muscle and what does it do? Smooth muscle that attaches to every hair, and makes the hair stand up (goosebumps) Nails – what are the main structures of nails? Nail Plate- Hard part Free edge- Overhangs fingertip. Nail Body- Visible attached portion Nail root- Extends proximally, under skin. Nail bed- The skin beneath the nail plate. Cuticle- (Eponychium) a layer of dead skin that covers the nail root. Nail Matrix- growth zone Lunule- (Little white moon in front of cuticle.) thick layer at base of nail. Why do nails appear pink in color? It appears ink because the nail plate lies over the nail bed, which is rich in blood What is the lunula? The visible part of the nail root. The crescent shape at the base of the nail. What is the function of the cuticle? Provides a waterproof barrier. Cutaneous glands – see tissue lecture for questions regarding the structural and functional classifications of glands; what are the four main types of glands in the integumentary system and what is the function of each? 1. Merocrine Sweat gland- Function is to cool the body with a water perspiration. It is the most numerous skin glands 3-4 million in adults 2. Apocrine Sweat glands- Function is to produce thicker, milky sweat containing fatty acids. This gland produces the smell of sweat. 3. Ceruminous Gland- Function is to produce earwax which is a combination of secretion, sebum and dead epidermal cells. 4. Mammary Gland- Function is to produce milk for infant. Develops only during pregnancy and lactation. What are the two layers of the dermis? Papillary Region and Reticular region Which is superficial and which is deep? Reticular region is the deep zone 80% Papillary Region is superficial zone 20% What are the main components of each layer? Reticular region- mostly thick collagen fibers. Papillary region- Highly innervated and vascularized What are dermal papillae and how do they relate to fingerprints? Dermal papillae are the valleys made by the epidermal ridges. They relate to finger prints because they bring the nerve endings closer to the surface. The dermal papillae also prevent slipping of the layers. What are the main components of the hypodermis? What is its function? Adipose & Areolar tissue Function is it binds skin to underlying tissues, but still allows skin movement. Bone Tissue What are the main functions of bone Support, movement, protection, hematopoiesis and mineral homeostasis What are the classifications of bones Long, flat, short, irregular? What are the organic components of bones What percentage of bone is accounted for by each? 24% total (90% type-I collagen, 10% non-collagenous proteins)? What are the mineral components of bone 70% hydroxyapatite? What is the difference between a greenstick fracture bone just splits and a comminuted fracture Shattered into pieces, and why are greenstick fractures more common in younger individuals? Their bones are softer and more flexible than adults boes. What do we mean by the statement that bone is a composite material its can with stand large amounts of weigh and stress and also they have a high bending strength? Which component (mineral or organic) gives it its hardness? Mineral Which gives it its flexibility? Organic What is an osteon? Concentric onion like lamellar structure. Runs almost parallel to the axis of the bone Be able to identify and state the function of each of these structures – central (Haversian) canal, lamella, canaliculi, lacuna, Volkman’s canal. Central canal: Bone blood supply. Where would you find compact bone and where would you find trabecular bone? Compact bone is the main component of long bone, outer shell of short bones Trabecular bone: lies within the cortical shell of short bones and at the extremities of long bones. What are periosteum and endosteum? What is the difference between the two? 1. Periosteum: External layer of the bone. a. Fibrous dense connective tissue. b. Inner layer is osteogenic c. Many nerve fibers/blood vessels/ lymphatic vessels. 2. Endosteum: internal layer of bone a. Thin layer of reticular connective tissue b. Lines canals, marrow cavity. c. Contains contains osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Be able to identify and describe the following – articular cartilage, epiphysis, physis, metaphysis, diaphysis, marrow cavity. Physis- growth plate, and hyaline cartilage. Metaphysis- where new bone forms Diaphysis- shaft, compact bone and medullary cavity Epiphysis- expanded “head” or ends, includes joint surface. What are the types of cells found in bone? What is the function of each type of cell? In addition to their functions, 1. Osteogenic cell- stem cells 2. Osteoblasts- bone building cells 3. Osteocytes- mature osteoblasts 4. Osteoclasts- bone dissolving cells there are several differences between osteoblasts and osteoclasts – what are they? What is ossification (or osteogenesis)? Ossification/ osteogenesis is the process of bone formation What are the two main pathways? 1. Intramembranous Ossification (With membrane) 2. Endochondral ossification (with cartilage) What are the major differences between these two pathways? Intramembranous is done through the membrane of the bone Endochondral is done with cartilage. What types of bones are produced by each process? Intramembranous ossification produces flat bones and most of the clavical. Endochondral ossification produces bone from a preexisting model made of hyaline cartilage. Don’t get TOO caught up in the specific details of these two processes – concentrate on the major steps and the key differences between them. What is the growth plate? A specialized tissue located at the distal and/or proximal ends of bones What are the layers of the growth plate, and what happens in each? What are the major differences between bone modeling and bone remodeling? 1. Modeling a. Started by increased/decreased load b. May involve resorption and/or deposition. c. Resorption and deposition may occur at different sites d. Involves relatively large amount of bone. 2. Remodeling a. Initiated by damage of the bone. b. Resorption and deposition are coupled c. Resorption and deposition are always at the same site d. Involves very small amounts of bone. Where does each happen? Why does each happen? 1. Remodeling happens in both spongy and compact bone. It happens because it is the process of repairing a broken bone. What happens if the activities of the osteoclasts and osteoblasts become imbalanced during remodeling? Leads to pathologies - osteropetrosis and osteoporosis What are osteopetrosis and osteoporosis? Osteopetrosis- an osteoclast dysfunction that increases bone mass. Osteoporosis- excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts or inadequate formation of new bone by osteoblasts. Where does bone tissue get its blood supply? Blood enters the bone through the nutrient artery. Which enters the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen. The blood supply then runs through the haversian and volkmans canals. What is the nutrient foramen? The external opening of the bone that allows entrance of blood vessels in the bone. Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Keep in mind that in this section particularly, but also in the tissue and general orientation section, the information from lecture goes hand in hand with the information from lab, and all of it is fair game. So, for example, the lecture exam might include a picture of a bone that asks you to identify components, or a picture of a skeleton where you need to identify the bones. What are the major components of the axial skeleton Skull, ear ossicles hyoid bone, thoracic cage (ribs+sternum) vertebrae? What are the functions of the axial skeleton Forms longitudinal axis of body, supports neck head and trunk, protects brain, spinal cord, and organs of thoracic cage ? Understand the location and articulations of each bone of the axial skeleton. The skull is divided into cranium and face – which bones make up the cranium Frontal bone, parietal bone (2x), occipital bone, Temporal bone (2x), sphenoid, ethmoid? Which bones make up the face Maxilla (2x), Mandible, Vomer, Lacrimal (2x), Nasal (2x), Palatine (2x), Zygomatic (2x), inferior nasal concha (2x)? Which bones are paired and which bones are not? What are the functions of the skull? Which pathway of ossification gives rise to the bones of the skull? What are fontanelles ? What is their function? Space b/w unfused cranial bone What is the hyoid bone bone that serves as an attachment for many muscles? Where is it located between chin and larynx? What makes it different from other bones only bone that does not articulate with another bone in body? What are the ear ossicles (proper names, please!) Malleus, Incus, Stapes? Where are they located inside the ear ossicles ? What is their function Act as a lever to transmit and amplify sound waves? What are the parts of a generalized vertebra Cervical , thoracic, lumbar? What are the types of vertebra? How many of each type are there 7,12,5,5,4? What are the key differences between the types (in other words, how do you tell one type from another, what specialized features help to differentiate them) moose(lumbar), giraffe(thoracic)? Cervical have Transverse Foramen. Also has split spinous process. What are atlas and axis c1, c2? What specialized features does each have atlas allows us to move our head in yes motion and axis allows us to more our head in no motion? What are the articulations of these two bones atlas has tranverse foramen and axis has a dens? How/where do the ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebra Transverse costal facet? What is the sacroiliac joint place where ilium and sacrum articulate to form a joint? What are the primary spine is convex from posterior and secondary curvatures of the spine Cervical portion becomes concave from posterior ? When do they develop Infancy? What are kyphosis Hunch back, lordosis swayback and scoliosis curved spine? What are the differences in the spine between a quadruped (like a chimpanzee) and a biped? What is an intervertebral disc Pad of cartilage b/w vertebrae? What is the nucleus pulposus center of the cartilage disc ? What is the annulus fibrosus outer part of cartilage disc? What is the function of the intervertebral discs? Help hold vertabra together and also act as a shock absorber What does it mean to say a disc is herniated? annulis fibrosus is cracked due to strain How many ribs do people have 12 pairs 1-7 are true 8-12 are false? What is the difference between a true rib attach to thoracic vertebrae and sternum and a false rib only attach to thoracic vertebrae and sternum? What is the difference between a false rib and a floating rib floating ribs only attach to thoracic vertebrae? What is costal cartilage cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum? Appendicular skeleton – what are the components of the appendicular skeleton Pectoral Girdle, Upper Extremity, Pelvic girdle, lower extremity? What bones make up the pectoral girdle Clavicle and Scapula? The pectoral limb Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpals, metacarpsls and phalanges. ? The pelvic girdle Os coxa: ischium, ilium, pubis ? The pelvic limb Femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges? Understand the location and articulations of each bone of the appendicular skeleton. What are the four regions of the pectoral limb Brachium: shoulder to elbow (humerus) Antebrachium: elbow to wrist (2 bones ulna + radius) Carpus: 8 small bones in 2 rows Manus: 5 metacarpals, 14 phalanges in fingers, and what bones are found in each? What are the four regions of the pelvic limb Femoral region: hip to knee (femur + patella) Crural region: knee to ankle ( tibia + fibula) Tarsal region: ankle (union of crural region with foot) Pedal region: foot, ( 7 tarsal bones + 5 metatarsal bones, 14 phalanges), and what bones are found in each? What is an interosseous membrane dense fibers creating a ligament and where would you expect to find one Between the fibula and tibia and also the ulan and radius? What is the carpal tunnel a tunnel created by the transverse carpal ligament– what does it consist of, carpal bones and transverse carpal ligament what runs through it median nerve and tendons, and what is carpal tunnel syndrome over use or inflammation causing tendons to swell, swelling causes pressure on median nerve and causes tingling and pain.? What three bones make up the os coxa? Pubis, Ilium, Ischium. What bone(s) is/are part of the pelvis but NOT part of the appendicular skeleton Sacrum and coccyx ? What are the main differences between the pelvis of a male and a female? The greater sciatic notch is smaller on men than female. men have more of a V shaped while women have a U shaped. What are the foot arches Lateral Longitudinal Arch Medial Longitudinal arch, transverse arch., why are they important The absorb stress ? What are the main differences between the pelvic limbs of apes and humans; apes have a longer Ilium and a larger greater sciatic notch. Mixture of multiple choice, true false, matching, labeling, short answer questions Short answer questions come from overview questions at end of lectures. Will have word bank. 3-4 short answer question 2-4 points a piece answer in 2-3 sentences no need to write book. 65-75 multiple choice/ true and false. Given answer sheet. ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
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