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UMass - ART 115 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UMass - ART 115 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image 9/26/16 
Art History 115 
Professor W. Denny 
Lecture+Reading Notes 
The Way of Saint James: Romanesque Art and the Frontier with Islam 
● The Romanesque Culture and Artistic Style:    Relationship between style and culture 
● Romanesque  ○ Title that describes medieval art/architecture which looks Roman-like 
○ 11-12 century or 1000 ce -1150 ce  
○ Some places extend well into the 13th century 
● Birth  ○ Roman Empire (RE) had advance tech/developments 
○ Europe has fallen apart which includes RE 
■ Destroyed by cataclysm  (e.g. Mongol Invasions) 
■ “             ” by political corruption 
■ Roman Catholic Monastery survives 
● Kept alive by bible 
● “                  ” culture 
■ Europe can’t support cities of any size  ● People lived near soil 
● 90% of people produce their own food 
○ Europe is getting back on its feet ( around 1100 ce)  ■ Christians were obsessed with making the pilgrimage (hard trip) to Santiago  ● Pilgrimage was considered an act of repentance and humility towards  God  ● Sure enough, there was art on the way leading to the  ​shrine ​of St. James  ● The shrine of St. James was located in Santiago de Compostela in Spain    ■ Shrines  ● Was considered Sacred 
● Contains bodily remains a.k.a 
​relics​ of Saints (e.g. teeth, hair, bones  possessions)  ● Worship near shrine ensured granted wish 
● Dead Saints intercede with God on behalf of pilgrims/christians 
■ Europe ( between 11 & 12 century)  ● Monasteries became wealthier  ○ Source of wealth were Pilgrimages 
background image ○ Especially for monasteries that contains relics of highly  esteemed saints  ● Monasteries were autonomous  ○ Had their own source of agriculture to support others  ● Central France : Tournus and Cluny  ○ They began to replace ruined buildings  ■ Based off of books 
■ “                 ” remains 
● Cassino and St. Benedict: monastery found in Italy  ○ The prototype  ■ Old fashion 
■ Early Basilica with wooden roof 
● Cluny (Mid of 12th century): Greatest Monastery of the Middle Ages  ○ Autonomous community 
○ Beginning of 12th Century, had the largest church in Europe 
○ Sent out members to find other monasteries (i.e. create other 
monasteries) creating a Cluny system  ○ Completely destroyed except one through the French Revolution  ● Maria Laach in Germany:   ○ Surviving Romanesque Monastery 
○ Oriented west 
east (The idea was to make the Atrium face   Jerusalem)  ○ Rounds archs 
○ Thick walls 
○ Small windows 
○ Tall towers 
○ Groin vaults 
  The Pilgrimage Church of Ste. Foi at Conques: a case study    ● Pilgrims/Christians  passed Conques for the next Abbey (Agen) as they’re on their way to  St. James  ○ Agen had the Relics of Ste. Foy 
○ Conques lost money in Pilgrimage and tourism 
○ As a result stoler remains from Ste. Foy from Agen 
■ Used pilgrims donations to pay for cameo-and jewel encrusted gold-and  silver reliquary ( contains Ste.Foy’s skull)  ■ Reliquary: Recycled head of Roman sculpture  ○ Spread of stone vaulting throughout Europe was to provide a comfortably  honorable setting for relics  ○ And because of enhanced acoustics for the Christian Liturgy    
background image Typical Romanesque Church   
● Consist of  ○ West front 
○ Nave 
○ Aisles 
○ Transepts: arms of the church 
○ Crossing: place where transepts and nave intersect 
○ Choir: just east of crossing 
○ Apse 
○ Ambulatory  
○ Radiating chapels (Apsidioles): little apses 
background image   West Front    ● Symmetrical 
● Heavy 
● Peaking roofs 
● Made of rubble /concrete 
● Sometimes 2 Clochers (bell tower) 
● Tympanum : consists of semi-circle with relief sculpture 
○ Sculpture refers to judgement day 
○ Same scene for every Romanesque church 
○ Refers to a society obsessed with sin/judgement 
○ Designed to be frightening 
○ Interest in spirit is greater than interest in body 
○ Antibody of spiritual & cultural environment 
● Trumeau : supports the Tympanum 
● Jambs: side post of the doors 
● Lintel: horizontal beam above doorway 
● Voussoirs: wedge shaped blocks that form archivolt and frame of Tympanum and arch 
  The Interior    ● Nave 
● Choir 
● Crossing 
● Ambulatory: to get to absidioles ( contains relics of saints) 
● Octogonal Dome on Squinches 
  St. Sernin in Toulouse (designed for first Bishop named St. Sernin)    
Fun Fact: There were Regional differences in Romanesque art during 11th&12th century, an example is 
noted in north and south of France where each region spoke a slightly different language but had a 
common ground in Latin for a few words. 
● Much larger church but the same style  ○ 1080-1120 
○ Designed for pilgrims 
○ Much bigger than Ste. Foy 
○ Provided additional space for curious pilgrims, worshipers, and liturgical processions. 
  Floor Map of St. Sernin (Regular & 

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School: University of Massachusetts
Department: Art
Course: Visual Art, Artists, & Cultures
Professor: Walter Denny
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Art History
Name: Art Hist 115, week 4 notes
Description: Sorry guys, I will also be posting week 3...It's taking longer than it should.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
13 Pages 41 Views 32 Unlocks
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