ANTR 350 LEARNING OBJECTIVES STUDY GUIDE TEST 1
ANTR 350 LEARNING OBJECTIVES STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 ANTR 350
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabrina Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTR 350 at Michigan State University taught by Lindsey Jenny in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Human Gross Anatomy in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 Introduction to Anatomy □ Describe anatomical position using anatomical terminology □ Define the following terms used for spatial orientation/directions and be able to give an example of each term in a sentence. o Anterior (ventral)/ Posterior (dorsal) o Medial/Lateral o Proximal/Distal o Superior/Inferior o Superficial/Deep □ Identify all of the body regions on Figure 1.8 Key Regions o Practice describing these body regions in relation to one another using anatomical direction terms- Example “The abdomen is superior to the pelvic region.” □ Describe the difference between the anatomical use of the following terms and the laymen’s (every day usage) of the term: o Leg o Arm □ Define the 3 standard anatomical planes (Figure 1.5 Anatomic Position and Body Planes) o Sagittal (mid sagittal and para sagittal) o Frontal (coronal) o Transverse (horizontal) □ Describe the difference between a midsagittal plane and a (para)sagittal plane. □ Identify the planes used to make the 4 abdominal quadrants □ Identify the planes used to make the 9 abdominal regions (no need to memorize the names of the 9 body regions). □ Identify the following on Figure 1.9 Body Cavities: o Anterior (ventral) body cavity o Posterior (dorsal) body cavity o Cranial cavity o Vertebral canal o Thoracic cavity o Diaphragm (in between adnominal and thoracic) o Abdominal cavity o Pelvic cavity o Mediastinum □ List the ventral body cavity subdivisions lined with serous membranes. (Table 1.4 Body Cavities) o Thoracic, diaphragm, abdominal, pelvic Independent Reading- Chapter 4: Tissue Level of Organization □ List the 4 principal tissues found in the body □ Describe the 4 functions of epithelial tissue □ Describe how epithelial tissue is classified 1 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 o List where you would find the following: Simple epithelium Stratified epithelium Pseudostratified epithelium □ Describe the 3 main characteristics of connective tissue □ List the 6 functions of connective tissue □ Describe the function and location(s) of the following types of connective tissue: o Adipose o Dense regular o Hyaline cartilage o Fibrocartilage □ List the 4 types of membranes found in the body and describe the general functions and locations of each membrane □ List the 3 types of muscle tissue and describe their general functions and locations □ Define the following terms: o Voluntary o Involuntary □ List the two types of neural tissue and describe the basic function of each type Independent Reading Chapter 5: Integumentary System □ List the structures included in the integumentary system □ Describe the 6 functions of the integumentary system □ Describe the role of melanin in the color of the epidermis □ Define the following terms and explain how these terms relate to regulating body temperature: o Vasoconstriction o Vasodilation □ Describe the functions of the hypodermis (aka superficial fascia) Skeletal System Overview □ List the functions of the skeletal system □ List the 5 different types of bones and give an example of each. (Figure 6.3 Classification of Bone by Shape) □ Identify the following on Figure 6.4 Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone: o Diaphysis o Epiphyses o Periosteum o Articular cartilage o Endosteum o Compact bone o Spongy bone 2 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 □ Describe the process of intramembranous ossification and give an example of a bone that develops from intramembranous ossification □ List the major steps of endochondral ossification and give an example of a bone that develops from endochondral ossification o Explain the difference between a primary ossification center BECOMES FIRST PART OF BONE TO OSSIFY 8 THFETAL WEEK (aka diaphysis) and a secondary ossification center (aka epiphysis) SECOND PART TO OSSIFY, HAS MULTIPLE, 2 MO – 18 YRS) □ List the steps of fracture repair o Fracture hematoma forms o Fibrocartilage callus forms Regenerated blood capillaries infiltrate fracture site o Fracture sit is reorganized into an actively growing connective tissue procallus o Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers within it to connect bones o Procallus becomes fibrocartilaginous callus o Bony callus forms o Bone is remodeled □ Specify the bone cells responsible for absorbing bone, depositing bone, and monitoring bone □ Categorize the terms listed in the table for Figure 6.17 Bone Markings in terms of describing: o A type of bony projection- Examples- processes, tubercles o A type of bony depression- Example- fossa o A type of bony opening- Example –foramen o A type of articulating surface (2 or more bones touching each other)- Example-condyle □ Distinguish between the bones of the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton □ Describe how osteoporosis affects the skeleton- (See Clinical View- Osteoporosis in Chapter 6). o Weakens bone both itself and structurally o Calcium and bone matrix are lost Especially in spongy bone o Menopause o Women especially because we have less bone density than men o No estrogen Independent Reading: Chapter 9 Articulations 9.1-9.5a □ Describe the relationship between joint stability and joint mobility □ Explain the difference between functional classification of joints and structural classification of joints. o Structural classification of joints divides into fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints and depends on the material composing the joint and precense of joint cavity 3 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 o Functional classification divides joints into 3 categories: SAD o Define and list examples of the following functional joint types: Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis o Define and list examples of structural joint types including: Fibrous –gomophoses, sutures, syndesmoses Cartilaginous – symphyses, Synchondroses Synovial – shoulder and elbow and knee □ Identify the following on Figure 9.4 Synovial Joints: o Fibrous layer of articular capsule o Synovial membrane o Joint cavity o Articular cartilage □ Describe the function of articular cartilage □ Define what a ligament is and describe their function □ Define what a tendon is and explain how it is different from a ligament – tendons are not part of joint, and it attaches muscle to bone and creates movement. Ligaments connect bone and reinforce a synovial joint, intrinsic and extrinsic □ Distinguish between osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis (See Clinical View on Arthritis in Chapter 9). OSTEOARTHRITIS Most common Wear-and-tear on weight bearing Articular cartilage breaks down first Hips knees and feet and C and L vertebrae Older people RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Younger Pain and swelling of joints, muscle weakness, heart and blood vessel AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER Body targets its own tissues for attack When you become sick, your immune system targets its own tissues as well as the disease o Specify the structures of joints affected by osteoarthritis versus rheumatoid arthritis o Specify which joints in the body are commonly affected by osteoarthritis versus rheumatoid arthritis □ List an example of the following types of synovial joints: o Plane (gliding) – some vertebrae o Hinge - elbow o Pivot - atlas o Ball and socket - shoulder 4 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 □ Define the following terms used to describe joint movements and give an example of each: o Abduction/Adduction o Flexion/Extension o Pronation/Supination o Rotation o Circumduction Independent Learning Module on D2L: The Skull □ Identify the following one Figure 7.2 Cranial and Facial Divisions of the Skull: o Frontal bone o Parietal bone o Occipital bone o Temporal bone o Sphenoid bone o Ethmoid bone o Zygomatic bone o Maxilla o Mandible □ Identify the following on Figure 7.4 Anterior View of the Skull: o Frontal bone Supraorbital notch/foramen Supercillary arch o Parietal bone o Temporal bone o Sphenoid bone Superior orbital fissure o Ethmoid bone o Lacrimal bone o Nasal bone o Zygomatic bone o Maxilla Infraorbital foramen o Mandible o Vomer o Inferior nasal concha □ Identify the following on Figure 7.6 Lateral View of the Skull: o Frontal bone o Parietal bone o Temporal bone Squamous part of temporal bone Mastoid process Styloid process External acoustic meatus 5 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 o Sphenoid Greater wing of sphenoid o Occipital bone o Zygomatic bone o Nasal bone o Lacrimal bone o Ethomid bone o Maxilla o Mandible Head of the mandible Coronoid process (not labeled but visible) o Zygomatic arch o Coronal suture o Squamous suture o Lambdoid suture □ Identify the following on Figure 7.7 Sagittal Section of the Skull: o Frontal bone Frontal sinus o Parietal bone o Temporal bone Internal acoustic meatus o Ethmoid Crista galli Perpendicular plate o Vomer o Maxilla o Mandible o Sphenoid Sphenoidal sinus Sella turcica o Occipital bone Hypoglossal canal o Coronal suture o Lambdoid suture o Squamous suture □ Identify the following on Figure 7.8 Inferior View of the Skull: o Occipital bone External occipital protuberance Foramen magnum Occipital condyles Hypoglossal canal Jugular foramen o Temporal bone Mastoid process Styloid process Stylomastoid foramen Carotid canal 6 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 Mandibular fossa o Sphenoid bone Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Pterygoid processes o Maxilla o Zygomatic bone o Palatine bone o Vomer o Zygomatic arch □ Identify the following on Figure 7.9 Superior View of the Skull: o Frontal bone o Ethmoid bone Crista galli Cribiform plate o Sphenoid bone Lesser wing Greater wing Optic canal Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Sella turcica o Temporal bone Petrous part Internal acoustic meatus o Occiptial bone Foramen magnum Hypoglossal canal Jugular foramen □ Identify the following on Figure 7.22 Mandible: o Head of mandible o Ramus o Coronoid process o Body o Mental foramen o Temporomandibular joint □ List the bones that contribute to the face and the bones that contribute to the cranium (brain case) o Sphenoid and ethmoid □ Specify the bony openings that transmit the internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and middle meningeal artery o Internal jugular vein: JUGULAR FOAMEN o Internal carotid artery: CARTOID CANAL o Middle meningeal artery: FORAMEN SPINOSUM 7 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 □ Define pterion o A region where the frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid all join together behind the temple o Explain the clinical relevance of trauma to the pterion region of the skull Can cut the middle meningeal artery and cause bleeding Weak spot very thin edges Epidural hematoma can be fatal – pool of blood btw bone and presses on the brain □ List the bones that contain paranasal sinuses o Left and right maxilla and ethmoid □ Specify the bones affected by cleft lip and cleft palate o Nose and mouth o Alveolar process of maxilla o Maxille o Palatine bones o Palatine proceses of the left and right maxillae □ Define fontanelle o Skull bones are still growing and there are large spaces between the bones filled with fibrous connective tissue o During birth they overlap to compress □ Specify the bony features (articulations) the make up the temporomandibular joint (aka TMJ). o Mandibular condyle and mandibular fossa □ Describe the general location of hyoid bone o Explain why the hyoid bone is unique within the skeleton It is the only bone that floats and isn’t attached to another bone Axial Skeleton- Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage □ List the 5 regions of the vertebral column. □ Describe the features of a “typical” vertebrae from the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions □ Describe the key features of C1, C2, and C7 □ Explain where the spinal cord and spinal nerves are located in relation to the vertebral column □ Specify the bony openings that transmit the vertebral artery □ Describe the 3 spinal curvature abnormalities □ Identify the following on Figure 7.29 Vertebral Anatomy: o Body o Transverse process o Spinous process o Lamina o Pedicle o Superior articular process/facet 8 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 o Inferior articular process/facet o Intervertebral foramen o Vertebral foramen o Intervertebral disc □ Identify the following on Figure 7.30 Cervical Vertebrae C1 and C2: o Atlas Anterior arch Posterior arch o Axis Dens Body Spinous process Transverse process Transverse foramina Superior articular facet □ Describe the location and specify the bony articulations of the following joints: atlantooccipital, atlantoaxial, zygapophyseal (facet), Intervertebral disc o List the movements each of these joints allow □ Explain how an injury to the intervertebral disc can occur and what happens to the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc when it is injured (herniated)- (See Clinical View-Herniated Discs in Chapter 7) o Cervical and lumbar especially o List other anatomical structures can be affected by this injury Cervical: upper back and upper limbs Lumbar: lower back Can cause sciatica is nerve fibers are pinched (pain down entire lower limb) □ Identify the following on Figure 9.13 Intervertebral Articulations: o Annulus fibrosus o Nucleus pulposus o Anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) o Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) □ Explain how the ALL and PLL help to stabilize the spine □ Identify the following on Figure 7.32 Thoracic Cage: o Superior thoracic aperture o Inferior thoracic aperture o Intercostal space o Costal margin o Subcostal plane o True ribs o False ribs o Floating ribs o Manubrium o Body o Xiphoid process o Sternal angle 9 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 □ Describe how ribs are divided into “true”, “false”, and “floating” based on their attachments. □ Identify the following on Figure 7.33 Rib Anatomy and Articulation with Thoracic Vertebrae: o Head or rib o Neck o Tubercle o Angle o Shaft o Costal groove □ List the 3 parts of the sternum □ Explain the clinical significance of the sternal angle □ Describe the location and bony articulations of the following joints: o Costovertebral o Costotransverse o Sternocostal o Manubriosternal o Costochondral Independent Reading: Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue and Organization □ List the functions of skeletal muscle □ Define the following terms: o Tendon o Muscle o Epimysium (aka investing fascia) □ Describe how skeletal muscles are attached to other structures □ Define the following and give an example of each: o Agonist o Synergist o Antagonist □ Explain how skeletal muscles are named □ Specify where cardiac muscle and smooth muscle can be found in the body Axial Muscles □ Describe the attachments and actions of the following muscles: o Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) o Erector Spinae muscle group o Transversospinalis muscle group. □ Explain what ipsilateral and contralateral mean in relation to muscle actions □ Explain how unilateral muscle contraction is different from bilateral muscle contraction in terms of muscle actions □ Identify the following on Figure 11.11 Deep Muscles of the Vertebral Column: o Erector spinae group Iliocostalis 10 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 Longissimus Spinalis o Transversospinalis group □ Describe the fiber directions of the following muscles: o External abdominal oblique o Internal abdominal oblique o Rectus abdominis o Transversus abdominis. □ Describe the actions of the anterolateral wall muscles as a group- (anterolateral wall muscles include the external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, rectus abdominis, and transversus abdominis.) □ Explain what the rectus sheath is and specify what muscle it encloses □ Identify the following on Figure 11.14 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall: o Rectus abdominis o Internal abdominal oblique o External abdominal oblique o Transversus abdominis o Linea alba o Rectus sheath □ Identify the following surface landmarks labeled on Figure 13.3 Anterior Trunk Region: o Suprasternal notch o Sternal angle o Costal margin o Umbilicus o Linea alba 11
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