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CHEM 1090 Study guide for chapters 1 - 4.1

by: Brandon Tan

CHEM 1090 Study guide for chapters 1 - 4.1 CHEM 1090-011

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Chemistry > CHEM 1090-011 > CHEM 1090 Study guide for chapters 1 4 1
Brandon Tan

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About this Document

A study guide for the midterm on 9/22. Covers chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4.1
Elementary Chemistry
Samantha L. Schachermeyer
Study Guide
Chemistry, ElementryChemistry, Math, light, atoms, basics, significant figures, LabelMethod
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brandon Tan on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1090-011 at University of Toledo taught by Samantha L. Schachermeyer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Elementary Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
CHEM 1090 Study Guide Chapters 1 – 4.1 review Table of Content  Chapter 1  Chapter 4.1 o Classification of matter o Light o Properties o Matter and Energy o Periodic table o Laws, Hypothesis, Theories  Chapter 2 o Factor Label Method o Exponential numbers o Metric system o Significant Figures o Temperature scales  Chapter 3 o Laws of Chemical  Combination o Dalton’s Atomic Theory o Subatomic Particles o Atomic Mass Chapter 1  Classification of matter o Elements: Simplest form of matter. Can’t be broken down. o Compounds: Combination of elements. Has different properties. o Both elements and compounds are pure substances. o Mixtures can be homogenous (the same) or heterogeneous (different) o Ex. Milk is heterogeneous while black coffee is homogeneous.  Properties o Extensive: depends on amount of quantity o Intensive: independent on quantity  Matter and Energy o Matter: Anything that has mass and fills up space. o Energy: The capacity to do work. o Law of conservation of energy: Energy can’t be created or destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another.  Periodic Table  Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories o Law: Scientific observations generalized into one statement. o Hypothesis: A statement that tries to explains why a law is true. o Theory: When a hypothesis is generally accepted. Chapter 2 2  Factor Label Method o Make sure your answer has the same units as asked in the problem.  Exponential Numbers o Multiplying/ Dividing: The number w/ the least amount of sig figs will determine the sig figs in the answer o Adding/ Subtracting: The number w/ the least amount of sig figs to the right of the decimal will determine the sig figs in the answer.  Metric System 3  Significant Figures o Accuracy: The closeness of the average of a set of measurements. o Precision: The closeness of all of a set of measured values. o Rules for zeros:  Any zero to the left of nonzero digits are not sig figs. Ex. 0.0004  Any zero between sig figs are sig figs. Ex. 4002  Any zero to the right of sig figs with a decimal are sig figs. Ex. 452.00  Any zero to the right of sig figs without a decimal are not sig figs. Ex. 5700  Temperature Scales o Fahrenheit: Water freezes at 32 and boils at 212 degrees. o Celsius: Water freezes at 0 and boils at 100 degrees. o Kalvin: Water freezes at 273 and boils at 373 degrees. o Formula: 4 Chapter 3  Laws of Chemical Combination o Law of definite proportions: A pure substance will always have the same specific ration of each element. o Law of multiple proportions: For two or more compounds composed of the same element, the ratio of elements will be  a small whole number.  Dalton’s Atomic Theory o Each element is made up of tiny, individual particles called atoms. o Atoms are indivisible; they cannot be created or destroyed. o All atoms of the same element are identical in every respect. o Atoms of one element are different from other atoms of any other element. o Atoms of one element may combine with atoms of other elements, usually in the ratio of small whole numbers, to form chemical compounds.  Subatomic Particles o Protons have positive charges. o Electrons have negative charges. o Neutrons have no charges.  Atomic Mass o Masses of atoms are expressed in atomic mass units or amu. o The amu is defined as exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon­12 atom. o A carbon­12 has 6 protons, 6 electrons, 6 neutrons. 5 Chapter 4.1  Light o Electromagnetic Spectrum: Gamma rays, X­rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared light, microwaves, and radio waves. o Wavelength: Distance between two successive crests. o Frequency: The number of crests that pass any point per second. o Photons: A stream of particles. 6


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