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Virginia Commonwealth University - BIOL 310 - Class Notes - Week 3

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Virginia Commonwealth University - BIOL 310 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image Genetics   Week Three Notes 9/12/2016  Information from the Power Point = Blue               Verbal information = Orange      Chapter 2 Continued  2.5   Spermatogenesis Compared to Oogenesis  The development of gametes varies between spermatogenesis and oogenesis    Male gametes = spermatogenesis (produced in testes)    Female gametes = oogenesis (produced in ovaries)   Sperm always starts diploid. Different organisms have different chromosome numbers, haploid 
is half of that and the number must be even as a diploid!  
Primary oocyte= primary polar body.  Primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis I and produces two secondary spermatocytes 
then the spermatocytes undergo meiosis II and produce a total of four haploid spermatids.
  Genetic information is exchanged during meiosis I.  Formation of ova occurs in the ovaries. The four daughter cells do not receive equal cytoplasm.  Only one daughter cell receives cytoplasm and it is known as the primary polar body. The 
primary polar body undergoes meiosis I and II and develops into ovum 
One cell = One Egg and One cell = Four sperm  Both the first polar body and the second polar body kill themselves.  The egg is big and the sperm is small. The egg has lots of cytoplasm and the sperm has 
a little bit. What does this mean?  
Meaning: Mothers give all cytoplasm traits to their offspring. 
All of it comes from the egg and none of it comes from the sperm. Everything in the 
mitochondria comes from mom. 
  2.6 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction  Meiosis- Mechanisms by which diploid amount of genetic information is reduced to haploid and 
by which each gamete carries similar, but not identical genetic information.  
Sperm and egg create diversity because none of them are exactly the same.   Juno Protein- Protein that blocks other sperm from joining the egg after fertilization occurs.  Plant and fungi life cycles:    Fungi: Haploid vegetative cells arise via meiosis – proliferate via mitotic cell division   
  Plants: Life cycle alternates between sporophyte stage and gametophyte stage 
background image ***Know the reproduction of a flower!*** This is how seeds are made.  Why do different foods have different number of seeds? Because the ovary will contain 
multiple ovules and each create one egg. There is lots of pollen that can drop on the eggs and 
this gives fruit lots of seeds. 1 ovule produces 1 seed. 
2.7 Physical Nature of Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosomes  Chromosomes are visible only during mitosis and meiosis.  Chromatin fibers make up chromosomes coil and condense in these stages.    EM of mitotic chromosomes in varying states of coiling led to postulation of the folded-fiber 
model 
Chapter 3  3.1 Mendel   Mendel worked with peas and used his quantitative data to prove his theories about traits and 
transmission of genetic information between generations. His work was published in 1866. 
Mendel is the father of genetics. He worked with peas and flowers to see how genetics works. 
He is the father of genetics because he took the time and had the effort and patents to keep 
records of all of his finding and documenting simple things like which peas are smooth, round, 
big, small, yellow, green etc. He used many generations and identified the genetic rule. For 
genetics you always need more than one generation. Transmission genetics also known as 
Traditional Genetics or Mendel Genetics. 
Mendel decided to work with peas because:  1.  easy to grow  
2.  true-breeding strains  
3.  controlled matings: self-fertilization or cross-fertilization   
4.  grow to maturity in one season  
5.  observable characteristics with two distinct forms 
Mendel used seven visible features  a.  each with two contrasting traits - two distinct traits like short and tall   b.  true-breeding strains    3.2 Monohybrid Cross  Mendel the father of genetics started with translation of the genetic tree with monohybrid 
crossing.
      P 1  generation: Original parents    F 1  generation: Offspring     F 2  generation: Offspring of F 1  generation crossed (self- fertilizing: “Selfing”)  He found that everything was 3:1 and that nature has its own genetic rules. 

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School: Virginia Commonwealth University
Department: Biology
Course: Genetics
Professor: Wu
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Genetics, Biology, and MCAT
Name: Genetics Week Three
Description: These notes cover matieral that will appear on exam one.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
4 Pages 29 Views 23 Unlocks
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