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BIOL 2440 - Class Notes - Week 5

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BIOL 2440 - Class Notes - Week 5

School: William Carey University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy I
Professor: Griffis
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anatomy and Biology
Name: Human Anatomy I Skeletal System
Description: These notes cover in depth the skeletal system. Including: -Functions of the skeletal system -Parts of the skeletal system -Bone shapes -Structure of a long bone -Bone membranes -Structure of a flat bone -Major divisions of the skeleton -Subdivisions of the axial skeleton -Subdivisions of the appendicular skeleton
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
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background image Skeletal System Skeletal System Functions
-Support
-Storage
-Blood cell production
-Protection
-Leverage (movement)
Parts of the skeletal system
-Includes:
-Bones
-Cartilage
-Tendons
-Ligaments
Bone Shapes
-Long bone: longer than it is wide
-Ex. Humerus, femur -Short bone: about the same width and length -Ex. Carpals, tarsals -Flat bone: made of thin sheets of bone -Ex. Sternum, occipital bone -Irregular bone: have complex shapes -Ex. Vertebrae, hipbone -Sesamoid: seed shaped -Ex. Patella  Structure of a long bone
-Diaphysis: shaft
-Epiphysis: end of a long bone
-Metaphysis: region between diaphysis and epiphysis
-Epiphyseal plate (growth plate): cartilage disc that can continue to grow 
until puberty ends
-ossify: turns to bone
-once it turns to bone it is called the epiphyseal line
-Medullary cavity: cavity in the diaphysis that contains fat called yellow 
marrow
-Compact bone: outer layer of the bone
-Spongy bone: porous inner bone
-Red marrow: located in the spongy bone; produces all blood cells
-Yellow marrow: adipose tissue
background image Bone membranes
-Periosteum
-Membrane that covers outer surfaces of bones
-Fibrous connective tissue
-Where tendons and ligaments attach
-Contain some bone cells
-Endosteum -Covers internal surfaces of bones
-Connective tissue
-Includes bone cells
-With more exercise bones will get thicker
-With less exercise bones will get thinner
-If the cells are adding tissue to the bone they’re called: osteoblasts
-If the cells are losing tissue they are called: osteoclasts
-Osteoporosis
Structure of a flat bone
-Outer surface is compact bone
-Center is made of spongy bone
Ossification
-Endochondrial ossification: the cartilage turning to bone
-Intramembranous ossification: membranes turning to bone
-Interstitional: ossification starts from the inside
-Appositional: ossification starts from the outside
Major divisions of the Skeleton
-Axial Skeleton
-Down the midline
-Includes:
-Skull
-Vertebral column
-Rib cage
-Appendicular Skeleton -Includes: -Shoulders
-Hips
-Arms
-Legs
-Hands
-Feet
background image Axial Skeleton: Skull
-Cranium and facial bones
-Cranium is just the part that contains the brain; everything else is facial 
bone
-8 Cranium Bones
- Frontal Bone
- Two Parietal Bones
- Two Temporal
- One Occipital
- One Sphenoid
- One Ethmoid
Cranial Bones
-Frontal
-Location: anterior part of the cranium
-Forms superior parts of the orbits
-Articulates with the parietal bones at the coronal suture
-Contains the frontal sinuses (paranasal sinuses)
-Superior orbital foramen/notch
-nerves and blood vessels come through this hole onto the  forehead
-Parietal
-Location: most of the superior part of the cranium
-the two parietal bones are joined by the sagittal suture
-joins the occipital bone by the lambdoid suture
     -joins the temporal bone by the temporal suture -Occipital -Forms the posterior and most of the inferior parts of the cranium
-Includes the foramen magnum which is the large hole where the 
spinal cord exits the skull
-Occipital Condyles: a bump on either side of the foramen magnum 
that articulates with the atlas vertebrae
-External Occipital Protuberance: attachment site for muscles
-Nuchal line: two horizontal lines (superior and inferior) that are 
associated with the external occipital protuberance; also where 
muscles attach to
-Temporal  -Forms most of the lateral aspects of the cranium
-Includes the Zygomatic process that attaches to the Zygomatic bone
-Mandibular fossa: depressions on the temporal bones that articulate 
with the mandibular condyles
-External acoustic meatus: ear canal that leads to ear cavities
-Mastoid process is where muscles attach to turn the head
-Styloid process tiny point where several muscles attach
-Sphenoid

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School: William Carey University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy I
Professor: Griffis
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anatomy and Biology
Name: Human Anatomy I Skeletal System
Description: These notes cover in depth the skeletal system. Including: -Functions of the skeletal system -Parts of the skeletal system -Bone shapes -Structure of a long bone -Bone membranes -Structure of a flat bone -Major divisions of the skeleton -Subdivisions of the axial skeleton -Subdivisions of the appendicular skeleton
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
11 Pages 20 Views 16 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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