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UT - ANT 304 - Class Notes - Week 4

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UT - ANT 304 - Class Notes - Week 4

School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Sociology
Course: Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist
Professor: Valdez
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Introduction, Intro to Archaeology, Archaeology, textbook, notes, and Chapter
Name: ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 2
Description: These notes focus on specific pages from chapter two of the textbook Archaeology and Humanity's Story by Olszewski (2016).
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
This preview shows pages 1 - 2 of a 3 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Textbook Notes Ch. 2 Ch. 2 pg. 37­39 I. A Word About Classification ­interested in relationship btwn things ­taxonomy: divides animal & plant groups into categ. based on evol.  relationship
­Hominoidea: superfamily taxonomic category that includes gibbons, 
orangutans, gorillas, common chimp, modern human ­chimps & humans in Homininae ­Panin: chimp genus
­Hominin: human genus
­genus: taxonomic category w/ all similar species w/ common ances.
­species: interbreeds; natural pop. reproductively isolated from other pop.
­Homo sapiens: modern human ­only species in genus ­Australopiths: earliest ancestor  ­subtribe of Australopithecina ­2 species in Panin ­Pan troglodytes (chimp) ­Pan paniscus (bonobo) II.  Bipedalism & The Earliest Hominins  ­bipedal: use of lower limbs to move around when walking/ running ­bowl­like pelvis (hip bones) ­angling of femur (upper leg bone), etc. ­foramen magnum: opening in skull where spinal column joins the head ­directly beneath skull in biped ­recognizing earliest biped is difficult ­fossil record only has teeth & frag. of bone ­painstakingly put back together pg. 41­43 A. Why is Bipedalism Important? ­most early hominins = small ­difference in size ­sexual dimorphism: dif. btwn F & M ­3.8­4.5 ft. ­65­175 lbs. ­most w/ large brains comp. to chimps                                ­most w/ low, slopping forehead, flat cheekbones & prognathic faces ­prognathic: lower face projects outward        ­bipedalism a. Advantages of Bipedalism ­increased terrestrial habitats
­free hands = manipulate objects & make tools
background image ­carry objects, infants, food, throw things
­better able to withstand heat stresses
­ex. open habitat in grassland of Africa
­thermoregulation
­less body surface exposed to sun’s rays
­further away from heat accum. by ground surface
­exposed to wind/breeze to cool off ­problem= most early hominin suggest arboreal living (tree living) ­energy & efficiency advantages ­the extent of it is debated ­constant visual awareness of predators
­carrying things leads to male parental care
pg. 48­50 III. Tool Use & Manufacture ­biology & behavior can be reconstructed based on…  ­skeletal anatomy ­specialized studies of mech. of locomotion
­diets
­until recently most data = flaked stone tolls ­tools predate this b/c chimp ­unlikely to preserve… ­modified twigs ­rocks & branches ­bone tools (found in Swarthkrans South Africa) ­dig termite mounds
­older than sites w/ stones
­behavior is older, once w/ organizational material A. Stone Tools ­until 2015, earlies record indirect ­Dikka (Ethiopia) 3.39 mil. yres ago ­animal bone w/ stone tool cuts
­area of Au. Afranensis
­stone tools not found so not sure
­newly reported stone tools (3.3 mil. y.a.) in Kenya
­deliberate stone artifacts found ­Gona (Eithiopia) (2.6­2.5 mil. y.a.) ­Oldowan: earliest known stone tools [until recently] ­2.6 mil. y.a. ­choppers, flakes, hammer stones, scrapers ­represents cognitive leap ­recognition of properties of stone ­some break to be sharp ­knapping

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School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Sociology
Course: Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist
Professor: Valdez
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Introduction, Intro to Archaeology, Archaeology, textbook, notes, and Chapter
Name: ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 2
Description: These notes focus on specific pages from chapter two of the textbook Archaeology and Humanity's Story by Olszewski (2016).
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
3 Pages 5 Views 4 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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