Chapter 3 Study Guide for Test 2
Chapter 3 Study Guide for Test 2 EPY 4033/6033
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie Kennedy on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EPY 4033/6033 at Mississippi State University taught by Kasia Gallo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Applied Learning Theories in Educational Psychology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning EPY 4033 Kasia Gallo Mississippi State University •Equipotentiality (“organisms”) •Black Box; internal processes excluded from examination •Neo-behaviorists – S-O-R http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-difference-between- classical-and-operant-conditioning-peggy-andover Basic Kasia Gallo Mississippi State University Assumptions •Objective study of learning: S-R •Learning: behavior change •Learning: result of environment (conditioning) •Tabula Rasa •Determinism •Behaviorism = parsimony Behaviorism: Kasia Gallo Mississippi State University Learning •Neutral Stimulus (NS) (bell) •Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) (food) •Unconditioned Response (UCR) (salivation) •Conditioned Stimulus (CS) (bell) •Conditioned Response (CR) (salivation) •Signal learning: conditioning works best when CS is presented right before US (bell-food) Pavlov’s Kasia Gallo Mississippi State University Classical •Fears, phobias •Food aversions •Fear of failure •Attitudes Classical Kasia Gallo Mississippi State University Conditioning & •Common phenomena: •Associative bias (some S-R go together) •Contiguity (same time) •Contingency (if-then) •Extinction •Spontaneous recovery •Generalization (Little Albert) •Stimulus discrimination •Higher-order conditioning: (bell – light) Classical Kasia Gallo Mississippi State University Conditioning •Reversing undesirable responses: •Extinction (no pairing) •Speed – unknown •Tend to avoid averse stimulus •Counterconditioning •Introduction of incompatible response •Mary Cover Jones, Little Peter •Systematic desensitization Classical Kasia Gallo Mississippi State University Un-Conditioning •Practice is important •Positive climate while learning •To break a habit, one S-R must be replaced with another •Exhaustion method (class clown) •Threshold method (“fun” tests) •Incompatibility (individual vs. group work) •Assessing learning = searching for behavioral changes Classical Kasia Gallo Mississippi State University Conditioning & Behaviorism and classical condi▯oning Chapter 3 Learning theories Basic Assump▯ons of Behaviroism • Principles of learning should apply equally to diﬀerent behaviors and to a variety of animal species • Learning Processes can be studied most objec▯vity when the focus of study is on s▯muli and responses • Internal processes are largely excluded from scien▯ﬁc study • Learning involves a behavior change • Organisms are born as blank slates • Learning is largely the result of environmental events • The most useful theories tends to be parsimonious ones BEHAVIORISM • Objec▯ve study of learning: S-‐R • Learning: behavior change • Learning: result of environment (condi▯oning) •Tabula Rasa • Determinism • Behaviorism = parsimony Basic Assump▯ons of Behaviorism • Equipoten▯ality -‐ Behavioist typically assume that human beings and other animals learning in similar ways -‐organisms: refer to generically to a member of any species, human or nonhuman. • By focusing on two things they con observe and measure: -‐focus on S▯muli in the environment and response that organism make to those s▯muli • Behaviorist Principle of Learning -‐describes a rela▯onship between s▯mulus (S) and a response (R); -‐behaviorism is some▯mes called S-‐R psychology cont.. Basic Assump▯ons of Behaviorism • Black Box -‐s▯muli impinging on the box and responses emerging from it but with the things going on inside it remain a mystery – internal processes excluded from examina▯on • Not all behaviorist take a strict black box perspec▯ve • Some insist that factors within the organism (O), such as a mo▯va▯on and the strengths of s▯mulus-‐response associa▯ons – Also important In learning and behavior • Neo-‐behaviorists Theorist – Some▯mes called S-‐O-‐R (s▯mulus-‐organism-‐response) theorist – Behaviorist have asserted that they can fully understand both human and animal behavior only when they consider cogni▯ve processes as well as environment – We make that decision Behavior and Condi▯oning • Behaviorists have ra▯onally deﬁned learning as a change in behavior. – we see it reﬂected in someone's ac▯ons only when • Behaviorists o▯en speak of Condi▯oning: -‐An organism is condi▯oned by environmental events. -‐behaviorist belief that because learning is the result of ones experiences, learning happens to an organism in a way that is o▯en beyond the organisms control Determinists • Some early behaviorist, such as B.F. Skinner, were Determinist: -‐They proposed that if we were to have complete knowledge of an organisms past experience and present environmental circumstances -‐as well as knowledge of any predisposi▯ons the organism might inherit to behave in certain ways -‐We would be able to predict the organisms next response with total accuracy Contemporary Behaviorist • Many Contemporary Behaviorists don’t think in such a determinis▯c manner. • Contemporary Behaviorist: – Any organisms behavior reﬂects a certain degree of variability that s▯mulus-‐response associa▯ons and gene▯cs alone cant explain. • Looking at how organisms have previously learned to why people are other animals currently behave as they do, but we’ll never be able to predict their ac▯ons 100%. The Most Useful Theories Tend to be Parsimonious Ones • According to Behaviorist, we should explain the learning of all behaviors, from the most simple to the most complex, by a few learning principle. • The assump▯on reﬂects a preference for parsimony (conciseness) in explaining learning and behavior. Pavlov Classical Condi▯oning • Neutral S▯mulus (NS) (bell) • Uncondi▯oned S▯mulus (UCS) (food) • Uncondi▯oned Response (UCR) (saliva▯on) • Condi▯oned S▯mulus (CS) (bell) • Condi▯oned Response (CR) (saliva▯on) • Signal learning: condi▯oning works best when CS is presented right before US (bell-‐food) Pavlov Classical Condi▯oning • Neutral S▯mulus (NS) – A s▯mulus to which organism doesn't’t respond in any no▯ceable way Ø NS is presented just before another s▯mulus, one that does lead to a response • The second s▯mulus is called Uncondi▯oned S▯mulus (UCS), and the response to it is called uncondi▯oned response (UCR),: – because the organism responds to s▯mulus uncondi▯onally, without having had to learn to do so Ø A▯er being paired with a UCS, the previously NS now elicits a response and thus is no longer “neutral” • The NS has become a condi▯oned s▯mulus (CS) to which the organism has learned a condi▯oned response (CR) The Classical Condi▯oning Model Classical Condi▯oning • As Pavlov's experiments illustrate, classical condi▯oning typically occurs when two s▯mulus are presented at approximately the same ▯me. • Classical Condi▯oning is most likely to occur when the condi▯oned s▯mulus is presented just before the uncondi▯oned s▯mulus: -‐ some psychologist describe classical condi▯oning as a form of signal learning • Classical Condi▯oning usually involved the learning of involuntary responses. -‐Responses over which the learner has no control. • When s▯mulus elicits a response: -‐the s▯mulus brings about a response automa▯cally without learner having much inﬂuence over it Higher-‐Order Condi▯oning • Condi▯oned S▯mulus-‐ response associa▯on some▯mes piggyback on one another. • Higher-‐Order Condi▯oning : -‐a neutral s▯mulus (NS1) becomes condi▯oned s▯mulus (CS1) by being response an uncondi▯oned s▯mulus so that it soon elicits a condi▯oned -‐Second neutral s▯mulus (NS2) is paired with CS1 and it. Too, begins to elicit a condi▯oned response -‐the second s▯mulus has also becomes a condi▯oned s▯mulus (CS2) • Hiseemingly irra▯onal fears. a possible explana▯on for some -‐might also explain certain a▯tudes we acquire toward par▯cular people or situa▯on Example of Higher-‐Order Condi▯oning • Pavlov condi▯oned a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell and then later presented the bell in conjunc▯on with another neutral s▯mulus-‐ ﬂash of light that has never been associated with meat. • Neutral s▯mulus would also begin to elicit a saliva▯on response Sensory Precondi▯oning • Sensory Precondi▯oning: -‐similar to higher-‐order condi▯oning in the one s▯mulus-‐ response associa▯on builds on another. • Sensory Precondi▯oning occurs like this: -‐First, two neutral s▯muli (NS1 and NS2) are presented at the same ▯me. -‐NS1 is associated with an uncondi▯oned s▯mulus (UCS), becoming a condi▯oned s▯mulus (CS1) and elici▯ng a condi▯oned response (CR) -‐In cases of sensory precondi▯oning, the NS2 also elicits the condi▯oned response (NS2 has become (CS2) by virtue of its associa▯on with CS1 Example of Sensory Precondi▯oning • Sensory precondi▯oning oﬀers an alterna▯ve explana▯on for some cases of test anxiety • School (NS1) is ﬁrst associated with test (NS2). • If school is later associated with some trauma▯c event (UCS) • Then not only will school become a condi▯oned s▯mulus (CS1) elici▯ng anxiety (CR) but test may become a condi▯oned s▯mulus (CS2) Cogni▯on in Classical Condi▯oning • Many theorist now believe that classical condi▯oning o▯en involves the forma▯on of associa▯ons not between two s▯mulus but s▯mulus rnal mental representa▯on of those • Condi▯oned s▯mulus may enable an organism to predict that the uncondi▯onal s▯mulus is coming • Classical condi▯oning doesn't’t always involve cogni▯on Changing Undesirable Condi▯oned Response • Condi▯oned responses are o▯en diﬃcult to eliminate because they are involuntary -‐people have li▯le or no control over them. • Two possible strategies for reducing counterproduc▯ve condi▯oned responses : 1. Ex▯nc▯on 2. Countercondi▯oning Ex▯nguishing Undesirable Responses • Process of ex▯nc▯on • If condi▯oned s▯mulus is presented in the absence of the uncondi▯oned s▯mulus frequently enough, the condi▯oned response should disappear. • The speeds at which ex▯nc▯on occurs is unpredictable conjunc▯on with the UCS but some▯mes alone some▯mes present in -‐the s▯mulus pairing were inconsistent • People tend to avoid s▯mulus they’ve learned to fear -‐thus reducing the chances they might eventually encounter the CS in the absence of the UCS. Countercondi▯oning • Countercondi▯oning: -‐replaces the response with a new produc▯ve one and tends to be more eﬀec▯ve • Countercondi▯oning involves following steps: 1. new response that is incompa▯ble with the exis▯ng condi▯oned response is chosen preformed at the same ▯me with each other when they cannot be 2. S▯mulus that elicits the incompa▯ble response must be iden▯ﬁed -‐ﬁnd a s▯mulus that already makes the person happy 3. S▯mulus that elicits the new response is present to the individual -‐ the condi▯oned s▯mulus elici▯ng the undesirable condi▯oned response is gradually introduced into the situa▯on Mary Cover Jones work with “Li▯le Peter” • Peter was a 2 yr. old boy who had somehow acquired a fear of rabbits • To rid Peter of his fear, Jones placed him in a high chair and gave him some candy • As he ate the candy, she brought a rabbit into the far side of the room • The pleasure Peter felt as he ate the candy was a stronger response and over powered any anxiety he might have about rabbits • Jones repeated the same procedure everyday over two months • Each ▯me pu▯ng Peter in the high chair with candy and bringing the rabbit slightly closer each day • Peter anxiety about rabbits eventually disappeared Systema▯c Desensi▯za▯on • Coelimina▯ng many condi▯oned anxiety response. ng or • In systema▯c desensi▯za▯on -‐people who are excessively anxios in the presence of certain s▯muli are asked to relax while managing those s▯muli increasingly stressful situa▯ones involving relaxa▯on response gradually replace anxiety with a • Sysyema▯c Desensi▯za▯on has been used widely on test anxiety and public speaking
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