Test 2, A&P
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by A Jones on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 202 at College of Charleston taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web THE A&P: Test 2 Test 2 Quizlet: https://quizlet.com/150635252/aptest2flashcards/ ***email creator for password Chapter 20: Blood Vessels and Circulation Which blood vessels allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and tissues? : capillaries What artery supplies blood to the leg? : common iliac artery Which of the following arteries is found in the thigh region? : femoral artery What affects the mean arterial pressure?: resistance, heart rate, stroke volume What is the affect of epinephrine on blood vessels? : blond vessels vasodilate, heart rate increases, increased blood pressure Which of the following is an effect of the release of atrial natriuretic by the heart? : increased excretion of water and sodium and a lowering of blood pressure, which reduces the workload of the heart. Which one of the following structures is ONLY found in veins, and not other blood vessels? : valves What is the agerelated change in the arteries that is caused by the deposition of material in the walls of arteries to form plaques? : atherosclerosis Which artery carries blood that becomes part of the cerebral arterial circle? : left internal carotid artery What vein drains blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs? : femoral artery Which of the following veins drains blood from the upper limbs? : both the cephalic and basilic veins Which of the following veins drains blood from the pelvis, pelvic organs, and external genitalia? : internal iliac vein Which of the following veins carries blood from the stomach, intestines, and spleen to the liver? : hepatic portal vein What vein drains blood from the descending and sigmoid colon and upper rectum? : inferior mesenteric vein https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc41/9bd15626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web Poiseuille’s law states that flow is proportional to which two factors? : resistance and pressure difference Which of the following events would cause a decrease in blood pressure? : decreased viscosity of blood Which of the following factors affects venous return? : All vasoconstriction and vasodilation , blood volume , valves and the skeletal muscle pump Which of the following is released by the kidneys in response to decreased blood pressure? :renin T or F... Capillaries are composed of one layer of simple squamous epithelium: True T or F... Decreased stimulation of the baroreceptors will result in an increase in blood pressure: True elastic arteries: aorta, common carotids, iliacs muscular arteries: brachial, femoral, mesenteries the 3 types of capillaries found in the body: continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal continuous capillary: endothelial cells provide an uninterrupted lining, and only allow small molecules, like water and ions to diffuse through tight junctions which leave gaps of unjoined membrane called intercellular clefts. fenestrated capillary: pores in the endothelial cells and allow small molecules and limited amounts of protein to diffuse. sinusoidal capillary: special type of fenestrated capillaries that have larger openings in the endothelium, sinusoid blood vessels are primarily located in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and adrenal gland. biggest contributor to vascular resistance: blood vessel diameter 3 factors that can influence blood vessel diameter: chemical, neural and hormonal factors increased pressure =: increased blood flow increased resistance= decreased blood flow decreases chemoreceptor detect: CO2 and pH only long term regulation: Aldosterone causes the tubules of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water into the blood. This increases the volume of fluid in the body, which also increases blood pressure. If the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is too active, blood pressure will be too high. renin pathway: When blood volume is low renin, excreted by the kidneys, stimulates production of angiotensin I, which is converted into angiotensin II, which has many effects, including increase in blood pressure due to its vasoconstrictive properties. epi and norepi cause blood vessel in most blood vessels that go to tissues of the body to vasoconstrict but...: in the heart and skeletal muscle they trigger vasodilation Types of shock: Cardiogenic, Hemorrhagic, Hypovolemic, Anaphylactic https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc4853bd152/96a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web Cardiogenic shock: due to the heart’s inability to function properly, results in decreased cardiac output, seen with myocardial infarction Hemorrhagic shock: reduced blood volume due to hemorrhaging, blood loss Hypovolemic: plasma loss – dehydration/kidney, interstitial fluid loss (burns) Anaphylactic shock: blood volume is normal but release of inflammatory substances cause extreme vasodilation and increase in capillary permeability (ex. Allergic reactions) causes severe drop in BP Chapter 21/22: Lymphatic System and Immunity Parts of the lymphatic system: lymph vessels , spleen, tonsils Lymphatic capillaries are____ than blood vessel capillaries: more Cells displaying antigens and “talking to one another! " the primary cells in the immune response are: lymphocytes For adaptive immunity and in innate immunity ____ are the most numerous of all cell: phagocytes when a mono leaves the blood we call them: macrophages Innate cells macrophages, eosinophils, and mast/basophils Where does the processing of antigens occur?: lymph nodes Where are lacteals located in the digestive tract?: in the small intestine, they absorb fat Where are peyer's patches located?: mucosa of small intestine works to stop viral replication and spread of viruses: interferon B and nk cells become mature in: bone marrow T cells must travel to____ to mature: thymus. B and t cells are part of: adaptive defense Nk cells are part of : innate/nonspecific Structure of an antibody Hiv (aids) attacks: cdt4 helper cell disorders: Which of the following are lymphatic vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat?: lacteals In what direction does lymph flow?: interstitial space to the blood https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc3/953bd15626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web What are the lymphatic nodules that are found in the small intestine and appendix?: Peyer's patches What is the name of the lymphatic nodules and diffuse lymphatic tissue located in the posterior pharynx?: tonsils Which of the following describes the correct flow of lymph through a lymph node?: afferent lymphatic vessel, lymph node, efferent lymphatic vessel What is the blood component filtered out by the spleen?: old red blood cells the following are part of innate immunity: complement , skin , inflammation What are defined as the mechanical mechanisms of the innate immunity?: skin and mucous membranes chemical mediators of innate immunity: complement , histamine , cytokines What is the nonspecific lymphocyte that kills tumor cells and virus infected cells?: natural killer cells All of the following are seen in an inflammatory response: vasodilation of blood vessels chemotaxis of phagocytes into the area increased vascular permeability The following are a symptoms of local inflammation: heat, swelling, redness Which of the following is seen in a systemic inflammation?: fever Which of the following is caused by an adaptive response to selfantigens?: autoimmune disease cellmediated immunity requires: T cells What is the process that eliminates B and T lymphocytes against selfantigens?: negative selection When an antigen stimulates B or T cells, these B or T cells produce identical lymphocytes which are called : clones Which of the following is the molecule that displays an antigen on the surface of cells?: major histocompatibility complex molecule Which of the following is a costimulation molecule that is needed to have an response to an antigen? If the T cell recognizes the antigenic fragment bound to the _____________ protein on the B cell, the T cell binds to the B cell and _____________ are released from the T cell. The exchange of signals between the B and T cells is called _________________________.: MHC, cytokines, costimulation List the two steps necessary for T cell activation: 1.Tcell receptors bind to MHC proteins bearing antigens. 2. Other costimulatory molecules bind to the antigenpresenting cell. What is the name of the CD4 or T4 cell? : helper T cell plasma cell Which of the following is needed to activate antibodymediated immunity?: helper T cell What part of an antibody combines with an antigen?: variable region Classes of antibody: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE and IgD https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc4853bd4/9626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web Effects when an antibody combines with an antigen: release of inflammatory chemicals, inactivation of the antigen, phagocytosis of the antigen Which of the following is produced from a B cell that is stimulated by an antigen?: Both memory B cells and plasma cells. Cellmediated immunity is effective against: viruses, fungus, parasites Which of the following is produced in a cellmediated immune response?: Both cytotoxic T cells and memory T cells What is responsible for a secondary immune response to an antigen? memory T cells and memory B cells Debbie just came down with malaria. What type of immunity will she now have against another attack of malaria? Emily had chicken pox as a child and is nursing baby Molly when 5 year old Abi gets the chicken pox. What type of immunity does Molly have against the chicken pox? : active natural immunity The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions: left side of the head, left arm and shoulder, body regions below the diaphragm. Where do T cells move to mature?: Thymus When the body responds to a previously encountered bacteria quickly and strongly, this is provided by : adaptive immunity Immunity that results from antibodies administered to fight infections(like in rabies) is called ________ immunity. : passive artificial Chapter 23: Respiratory System 3 Parts of the respiratory membrane: 1.Squamous epithelial lining of alveolus 2.Endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary 3.Fused basal laminae between alveolar and endothelial cells. Tidal volume: amount of air per breath Respiration rate: number of breaths per minute Tidal volume: amount of air inhaled or exhaled per breath during quiet breathing https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc4855/9d15626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled beyond the tidal volume Equation for Vital Capacity: TV+IRV+ERV Equation for Total Lung Capacity: VC+RV (S/hould be 6,000 ml) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): amount that can be forcibly exhaled beyond tidal volume Residual volume: amount of air left in the lungs after the most forceful expiration Vital capacity: maximum amount of exchangeable air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration (should be 4800 ml) Conducting Zone: All respiratory structures from the nasal cavity to the terminal bronchioles Nasal cavity, all parts of the pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi, bronchiole ,terminal bronchiole These structures serve simply to conduct air to the part of the respiratory tract where exchange can occur. No gas exchange Respiratory Zone: Composed of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli Allows gas exchange to occur across respiratory membrane Trachea is made of: pseudisrtatified columnar epithelium All of the following are part of respiration?: exchange of gases between the lungs and blood , exchange of gases between the blood and tissues , ventilation lower respiratory tract: trachea , larynx , bronchi Functions of the nose: warms the incoming air with superficial capillaries , humidifies the incoming air with mucus , cleans the incoming air with nasal hairs, cilia, and mucus Adams apple: thyroid cartilage structure containing Cshaped cartilages: larynx Which epithelial lines the trachea? : pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells Which of the following is the correct sequence of flow of air through the bronchi towards the alveoli? : bronchus, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles Which of the following are the cubeshape cells that secrete surfactant into the alveolus? : type II pneumocytes Which of the following diseases is characterized by abnormally increased constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles?: asthma Which of the following are the muscles of inspiration? : diaphragm and external intercostal muscles https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc4853b6/9626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web Which of the following is true of expiration during normal quiet breathing?: There is no active muscle contraction and the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax and lungs Which of the following reflexes is stimulated when the lungs are overinflated?: Hering Breuer reflex Which of the following will cause an increase in the rate and depth of respiration?: H+ blood concentration increase Which of the following is the respiratory center responsible for inspiration?: Both the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups of the medullary respiratory center. Which of the following is the respiratory center responsible for switching between inspiration and expiration?: pontine respiratory groups Most of the carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in what form?: HCO3 dissolved in plasma Which of the following will cause hemoglobin to release oxygen? : pH decrease Which of the following blood vessels has a Pco2 of 45 mm: Both the pulmonary arteries and systematic veins What is the amount of air that can be maximally expired after a maximal inspiratory effort? : vital capacity What is the amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath?: tidal volume Which of the following is true of pleural pressure in relationship to alveolar pressure when the lung is neither inflating nor deflating?: Pleural pressure is under negative pressure that is lower than alveolar pressure. Which of the following is true of expiration during normal quiet breathing: There is no active muscle contraction and the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax and lungs recoil. https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc4853bd157/96a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc4853bd15626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 8/9 9/20/2016 THE A&P: Test 2 | Evernote Web https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=b867b4fd44424ae4815b24c7e190973f&b=7fa5e844aacc4853bd15626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/9
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