Evolution Study Guide
Evolution Study Guide BIO 4220-001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by La-Teisha Allen on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 4220-001 at University of North Carolina at Pembroke taught by John Howard Roe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Evoloution in Biology at University of North Carolina at Pembroke.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Evolution Study Guide Scientific Method • A technique for testing ideas with observations Hypothesis Predictions Components of Darwinian Evolution ) Organic Evolution – life is not constant, nor recently created but rather changes through time 2) Common descent – every living thing descended from a common ancestor 3) Multiplication of species – origin of biodiversity, species multiplication in branching process 4) Gradualism – change happens gradually over long periods of time 5) Natural selection – process of differential survival and reproduction among individuals Premise #1 • Species tend to reproduce more than resources can withstand (over- reproduction) Premise #2 • Struggle for existence environment has limited resources, so populations can’t grow exponentially Premise #3 • Individuals within a species and population have variable phenotypes (offspring differ from parents, siblings as well Premise #4 • Struggle for existence (“survival of the fittest”) – among variants, some have traits better suited to cope with challenges and exploit opportunities to survive and reproduce Premise #5 • Phenotypic variations are heritable – during replication (reproduction), genes (DNA) are passed from parent to offspring genes in part determine Typological thinking • categorizing things and considering forms within as the same “Essentialism” • perfect form with deviations as imperfections Fitness An individual’s lifetime reproductive success Adaptive traits o give an individual a higher probability of fitness in a given environment (beneficial +) Maladaptive traits o give an individual a lower probability of fitness in a given environment (deleterious –) Adaptation: an inherited trait that increases the fitness of an organism in its environment (biotic and abiotic), and that arises from process of Natural Selection • Adaptations: – trait must be shaped by Natural Selection and serve the same primary function in current Selective Environment as it did in past • Exaptation: – trait must be shaped by Natural Selection and serve different primary function in current Selective Environment than it did in past • trait was co-opted, re-worked, and tweaked for new purpose • Natural selection favors trait variants that are immediately beneficial, not variants that may be favorable in the future – shaped by past and current Selective Environments, cannot anticipate the future • Abiotic and biotic Selective Environments are constantly changing – abiotic: • climate shifts between ice age and hot periods (thousands to millions of years), flood and drought (years to centuries), seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall – biotic • predator/prey, host/parasite, competitive or mutualistic interactions Tradeoff: balance/compromise achieved among competing, incompatible features • Evolution can occur in two primary dimensions – Cladogenesis • temporal (vertical) change in a population – Anagenesis • spatial (horizontal) change between reproductively isolated populations
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