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PSY 370--Human SexualityFirst Test Study GuideBecause the test will be computer scored, you must bring a number 2 pencil and eraser. There are 69 four or five choice multiple choice questions on the first test (and on the other two tests as well). Some of these questions will be based on anatomical diagrams. Even though most of the material can be found in both the textbook and lecture notes, some of the material comes only from the textbook and some comes only from lectures. Below is a list of topics that may be on the test. Anything not on the list will not be on the test.INTRODUCTION: SEXUALITY IN PERSPECTIVE1.Definitions of coitus, gender, rape, sex, sexual behavior, and sexuality. Be able to recognize and explain from a description.Coitus: penile-vaginal intercourseGender: The psychological state of being male or female; a person’s sense of being male/female.Rape: Any genital activity without affirmative confirmation, which must be ongoing throughout any sexual activity.Sex: (a) refers to sexual/ reproductive anatomy or (b) to the behavior that produces or is intended to produce an orgasm (i.e., sexual behavior)Sexual behavior: Behavior that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm. Sexuality: Patterns of sexual behavior, beliefs, attitudes, emotions and fantasies. 2.Sexual attitudes and practices of Victorians, Puritans, Muslims, and ancient GreeksVictorians: Extreme conservatism, women covered most of their bodies. Women were to carrie themselves in a formal and disciplined manner. Upon the 1800s, specifically 1837-1901, the strict beliefs of procreation only and gender roles returned. Women weren’t seen to have sexuality and their role was to service their husbands (Crooks & Baur, 2011). Women were viewed as not knowing much about sex and having very little desire for it (Platoni, 2010). These strict views on gender and sex became what we now think of as the Victorian stereotype.1
Puritans: The Puritans were a group of 16th- and 17-century English Protestants who thought that the Reformation had not gone far enough in its rejection of the Catholic Church. They wanted a simpler, purer kind of worship and advocated a strict form of religious discipline. They were intolerant of any form of sexual activity outside marriage, and yet warmly encouraged it in the marital bed. The word puritan is often used today in a derogatory sense and is sometimes applied to those who appear to reject pleasure, especially of a sexual kind, or who are judged to have a too moralistic attitude towards sexuality in general. In fact, historically, Puritan attitudes towards sexuality were more tolerant than this, indeed celibacy wasn't viewed as a superior spiritual state and sex was approved of within certain contexts. ex within marriage was a gift from God and as much a rightful expression of love as it was a means to reproduction. The Puritans approved of the stabilizing influence of married life and believed it established conditions conducive to the worship of God.Muslims: Muslims have believed that sexual intercourse is one of the finest pleasures of life, reflecting the teachings of the great prophet Muhammad. However, the way that the laws of the Koran are carried out varies greatly from country to country.Ancient Greeks: Openly acknowledged both heterosexuality and homosexuality in their society and explained by the existence of the two in a myth in which the original humans were double creatures; some were double males, double females, and male/female. The gods split them in half, and forever after each one continued to search for its missing half. 3.What is true about sexual attitudes and behavior across cultures?Almost all societies have strong strong sexual norms. Incest taboo is almost universal. Adult exposure to genitals Fairly similar rate of homosexuals to heterosexualsGenerally similar expressions of jealousy 4.Major differences and similarities in sexual behavior between species including how they compare to humans. What species has sex for emotional bonding more frequently than humans?Humans are not the only species that masturbate. Common among female and male primates. Same gender sex is commonly found; observations of other species indicate that our basic mammalian heritage is bisexual.Human uniqueness: For lower species, sexual behavior is regulated hormonally. Among higher species, this is controlled by the brain (influenced by learning and social contexts). This environmental influences are much 2
more important in shaping primate—esp human—sexual behavior than they are in shaping the sexual behavior of other species. In virtually all mammals, females do not engage in sexual behavior unless they are in heat, or estrus. In contrast, human females are capable of engaging in sexual behavior during any phase of their hormonal or menstrual cycle.Traditionally, it was thought that female orgasm is unique to humans; some studies found evidence of orgasm in rhesus macaques. 5.For what are Anthony Comstock, and Margret Sanger famous?Anthony Comstock: He was a U.S. Postal Inspector and politician dedicated to the ideas of Victorian morality. He underwent an extensive campaign to censor materials he considered indecent and obscene, such as birth control information.Margret Sanger (1879-1966): An American birth control activist, sex educator, writer, and nurse. She opened the first birth control clinic and established organizations that evolved into the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.6.What is the major contribution to sexuality by Sigmund Freud and by Henry Havelock Ellis?The cultural context in which Sigmund Freud crafted his theories and writings was during the Victorian era, the late 1800s, both in the U.S. and in Europe. Norms about sexuality were extraordinarily rigid and oppressive. Freud’s psychoanalytic movement was his contribution; he stressed the importance of sexual drive, infantile sexuality, and sexual energy (i.e., libido). Henry Havelock Ellis was a physician in Victorian England, he compiled a vast collection of information in sexuality—including medical and anthropologic findings, as well as case histories—which was published in Studies of the Psychology is Sex (1896). He believed that men and women are sexual creatures. He believed that sexual deviations from the norm are often harmless, and he urged society to accept them.7.What caused and what ended the two American sexual revolutions? About when did they occur?First American Sexual Revolution (1920s)Influenced by the work of Sigmund FreudNew technologies Women obtained the right to vote.Stopped by the Great Depression (1930-40s)3
Second American Sexual Revolution (1960s)Second World WarInvention of birth control pillsWork of Masters and JohnsonPlay boy!Feminist movementGeneral disregard toward authorityStopped by disillusionment caused by the surge in herpes and AIDSSEX RESEARCH1.What does sampling mean and what difficulties occur when sampling?A sample is a portion of the population. A random sample or representative sample is a method of choosing participants, in which all members of the population have an equal chance of being included in the sample. Probability sampling is when each member of the population has a known probability of being included in the sample. Convenience sample: A sample chosen in a haphazard manner relative to the population of interest. Not a random or possibility sample. Problem of refusal or nonresponse: the problem that some people will refuse to participate in a sex survey, thus making it difficult to study a random sample. Volunteer bias: A bias in results of sex surveys that arises when some people refuse to participate, so that those who are in the sample are volunteers who may in some ways differ from those who refuse to participate. 2.Recognize and understand the limitations on the reliability of self-report on sexual behavior.Purposeful distortion (enlargement vs. concealment)Memory (difficulty to assess with accuracy) Difficulties with estimates3.What types of studies, especially observational studies, are done in sex research?Web-based surveysQualitative research in which the results are conveyed not in numbers, but in words. Qualitative measures encompass a collection of methods that may involve the researcher’s participation in a setting direct 4
observation; or in depth, open-ended questionnaire. This method is naturalistic and holistic. It seeks to understand people in their natural environment.EthnographyParticipant-observer technique: in this type of research, the scientist actually becomes part of the community, and he or she makes observation from inside the community. Correlational research produces data that can tell us if certain factors are related to each other…not if one factor caused another. Experiment: independent variable is manipulated and the dependent variable is observed. Casual inferences may be made if true experiment. 4.Recognize and understand the different ethical issues when doing sex researchInformed consent, protection of harm, justice5.What are the assumptions, strengths, and limitations of the research by Kinsey, Masters and Johnson, and NHSLS?Alfred C. Kinsey: interviewed a total of 5,300 males and 5,940 females (1938-1949) at Indiana University campus and large cities like Chicago. Excluded African Americans and those he interviewed where not published. Probability sample was used because of the problem of non- response. Face-to-face interview. Took precaution to ensure his participant’s privacy. Accuracy: some questions were very accurate while others contained serious problems (overestimation of sexual activity and homosexuality)National Health and Social Life Survey: Probability sample of American households, 18-59 years of age. A sample of 3,432 people. The data were obtained in face-to-face interviews supplemented by brief written questionnaires, which were handed to the respondents for particularly sensitive topics (i.e., masturbation) and sealed in a privacy envelope. The NHSLS is one of the best sex surveys of the general population of the United States that we have today. Limitations: age of sample; did not include enough people from some statistically small minority groups (i.e., Native Americans).Masters and Johnson: Masters had normal participants from the general population engage in sexual activity in the lab while he measured their behavior and physiological responses. Never before used approach. People who had history of emotional problems who where exhibitionist, where discarded from the study. A total of 694 people participated in the study; men ranged in age from 21-89; 5
women ranged from 18-79. The majority were well educated and white, with few minorities. o First participants engaged in sexual activity in privacy. Then, they were recoded during sexual intercourse, masturbation and “artificial coition”. In AC, female participants stimulate themselves with an artificial penis, powdered by an electric motor, capable of photographing the inside of the vagina. Measures as these avoid distortion.o Concerned about long-term effects, they made follow-up contacts every 5 years.SEXUAL ANATOMY1.Recognize from verbal description or from diagrams the: areola, Bartholin gland, breast, cervix, clitoral crura, clitoral glans, clitoral prepuce, clitoral shaft, endometrium, fallopian tube, fimbriae, G-spot, inner labia, outer labia, mons, nipple, ovary, perineum, pubococcygeus muscle, Skene's gland, vagina, vaginal introitus, vestibular bulbs, vulva; corona, corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosum, Cowper's gland, epididymis, frenulum, inguinal canal, interstitial cells (aka Leydig's cells), penile glans, penile prepuce, penile shaft, prostate gland, scrotum, seminal vesicle, seminiferous tubules, spermatic cord, testis, vas deferens6
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School: University of Miami
Course: Human Sexual Behavior
Professor: Franklin Foote
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology, humansexuality, contraception, Pregnancy, and Hormones
Name: PSY 370 Study Guide for Test 09/22
Description: This study is a composite of the notes from the text book and the notes class and his power-points.