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UNL - ALEC 101 - Class Notes - Week 4

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UNL - ALEC 101 - Class Notes - Week 4

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background image Communication in the 21 st  Century COMM 101
Week Four Notes
9/12 Pages 70-87 Reading Assignment
Chapter 18: The Rhetoric
Studying public speaking & communication in general is important in 
the U.S. Society for several reasons:
o Communication skills are paramount to securing & maintaining a  job o Public speaking suggests that as a society we are receptive to  listening to views that may conflict with our own o When one speaks before a group, the information resonates  beyond that group of people  The Rhetorical Tradition o Sophists: teachers of public speaking (rhetoric) in ancient Greece
o Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric: the available means of 
persuasion Assumptions of the Rhetoric o Aristotelian theory is guided by the following two assumptions  Effective public speakers must consider their audience Effective public speakers use a # of proofs in their 
o Audience analysis: an assessment & evaluation of listeners
o Aristotle’s proofs refer to the means of persuasion & 3 exist: 
ethos, pathos, and logos Ethos: the perceived character, intelligence, & good will of 
a speaker as they become revealed through his or her 
Logos: the logical proof that speakers employ – their 
arguments and rationalizations
Pathos: emotional proof; emotions drawn from audience 
Syllogisms: A Three-Tiered Argument  o Syllogism: a set of propositions that are related to one another &  draw a conclusion from the major & minor premises o Premises are starting points or beginners used by speakers –  they establish justification for a conclusion o Syllogism looks like:  A  B B  C Therefore, A  C Canons of Rhetoric o Canons are the certain guidelines or principles
o Invention
background image Define as a canon of rhetoric that pertains to the 
construction or development of an argument related to a 
particular speech
Topics: an aid to invention that refers to the arguments a 
speaker uses 
Civic spaces: a metaphor suggesting that speakers have 
“locations” where the opportunity to persuade others exist
o Arrangement A canon of rhetoric that pertains to a speaker’s ability to 
organize a speech
Speeches should generally follow a threefold approach”  Introduction: part of an organizational strategy in 
speech that includes gaining the audience’s 
attention, connecting w/ the audience, & providing 
an overview of the speaker’s purpose 
Body: part of an organizational strategy in a speech 
that includes arguments, examples, & important 
details to make a point
Conclusion: part of an organizational strategy in 
speech that is aimed at summarizing a speaker’s 
main points & arousing emotions in an audience 
o Style A canon of rhetoric that includes the use of language to 
express ideas in a speech
Glosses: outdated words in a speech (should be avoided) Metaphor: a figure of speech that helps to make the 
unclear more understandable
o Memory A canon of rhetoric that refers to a speaker’s effort in 
storing information for a speech 
o Delivery A canon of rhetoric that refers to the nonverbal 
presentation of a speaker’s ideas 
Types of Rhetoric o Forensic rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that pertains to speakers  prompting feelings of guilt or innocence from an audience (past) o Epideictic rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that pertains to praising or  blaming (present) o Deliberative rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that determines an  audience’s course of action (future) Integration, Critique, and Closing o Logical Consistency
o Heurism
o Test of Time

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School: University of Nebraska Lincoln
Department: Communications
Course: Communications in the 21st Century
Professor: Aaron Duncan
Term: Fall 2016
Name: Week Four Notes
Description: These notes cover the readings and in class notes from week four!
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
5 Pages 11 Views 8 Unlocks
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