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BIOL 2600 - Class Notes - Week 5

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BIOL 2600 - Class Notes - Week 5

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background image Chapter 7 notes Microbial Nutrition
-Nutrition 
– process by which chemical substances (nutrients) are 
acquired from the environment and used in cellular activities
-Essential nutrients – must be provided to an organism 
-Two categories of essential nutrients:
-Macronutrients – required in large quantities; play principal 
roles in cell structure and metabolism
-Proteins, carbohydrates -Micronutrients or trace elements – required in small 
amounts; involved in enzyme function and maintenance of 
protein structure
-Manganese, zinc, nickel Nutrients
-Organic nutrients 
– contain carbon and hydrogen atoms and are 
usually the products of living things
-Methane, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids -Inorganic nutrients – atom or molecule that contains a combination 
of atoms other than carbon and hydrogen
-Metals and their salts (magnesium sulfate, ferric nitrate, sodium 
phosphate), gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) and water
Chemical Analysis of Microbial Cytoplasm
-70% water
-Proteins
-96% of cell is composed of 6 elements
-Carbon
-Hydrogen
-Oxygen
-Phosphorous
-Sulfur
-Nitrogen
Sources of Essential Nutrients
-Carbon sources
-Heterotroph – must obtain carbon in an organic form made by other 
living organisms such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic 
acids
-Autotroph – an organism that uses carbon dioxide, and inorganic gas
as its carbon source
-Not nutritionally dependent on other living things Growth Factors: Essential Organic Nutrients
-Organic compounds that cannot be synthesized by an organism 
because they lack the genetic and metabolic mechanisms to 
synthesize them
background image Chapter 7 notes -Growth factors must be provided as a nutrient -Essential amino acids, vitamins Nutritional Types
-Main determinants of nutritional type are:
-Carbon source -Heterotroph – uses organic sources of carbon
-Autotroph – uses inorganic sources of carbon
-Energy source -Chemotroph – gain energy from chemical compounds
-Phototrophs – gain energy through photosynthesis
Combinations of Nutritional Types
-Chemoheterotrophs
-Photoautotrophs
-Chemoautotrophs (nitrifying bacteria, sulfur bacteria, most of which 
are members of the Archea)
-Photoheterotrophs (purple and green bacteria)
Heterotrophs and Their Energy Sources
-Two categories
-Saprobes: Free-living microorganisms that feed on organic 
detritus from dead organisms
-Parasites: derive nutrients from host
-Many pathogens can alternate between these two approaches: 
opportunistic 
 Transport: Movement of Chemicals Across the Cell Membrane
-Passive transport 
– does not require energy; substances exist in a 
gradient and move from areas of higher concentration toward areas of 
lower concentration
-Diffusion 
-Osmosis – diffusion of water
-Facilitated diffusion – requires a carrier
Transport: Movement of Chemicals Across the Cell Membrane
-Active transport 
– requires energy and carrier proteins; gradient 
independent
-Group translocation – transported molecule chemically altered
-Bulk transport – endocytosis, exocytosis, and pinocytosis
Environmental Factors That Influence Microbes
-Factors include: 
-Temperature
-Oxygen requirements
-pH

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School: William Carey University
Department: Biology
Course: Microbiology
Professor: Cunningham
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Biology, Microbiology, Ecology, and Science
Name: Microbiology Chapter 7: Elements of Microbial Nutrition, Ecology, and Growth
Description: These notes cover in depth the elements of microbial nutrition, ecology, and growth. This includes: -Microbial nutrition and essential nutrients -Sources of essential nutrients -Growth factors -Nutriti
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
5 Pages 16 Views 12 Unlocks
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