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Study guide exam 1Key Terms Chapters 1,3,4,5 and 6Chapter 1)applied research: Applied research examines many of the same variables as basic research, but within a specific context of interest to a marketer. Applied research is more common than basic research because consumer researchers want to solve particular businessrelated problems of immediate interest.basic research: Consumer research is divided into two broad categories based on the goals of the research: basic research and applied research. Basicresearch looks for general relationships between variables, regardless of the specific situation. For example, basic research has shown that using celebrity endorsers in advertising can increase consumers’ positive attitudes toward a brand, especially when the celebrity is well liked and fits well with the productbehavioral science: Behavioral science applies the scientific method, relying on systematic, rigorous procedures to explain, control, and predict consumer behavior. Thus, behavioral scientists study people and their behaviors in the same way that natural scientists study physical phenomena. Because behavioral scientists study people, however, research findings are more difficult to interpret. The primary methods of behavioral science include the experimental approach—conducting controlled experiments—and the marketing science
causal relationship: A causal relationship between two variables means that the variables are correlated and that one variable influences the other, but not vice versa In other words, a causal relationship exists if the following requirements are met:1. The two variables are correlated.2. The cause must precede the effect.3. Other potential causes are ruled out.causal research: is concerned with identifying and understanding cause andeffect relationships through experimentation. Consumer researchers are especially interested in uncovering two special types of relationships— correlations and causal (causeandeffect). When a statistically testable and significant relationship exists between two variables, we say the variables are correlated. A variable is simply any factor that can potentially change.consumer behavior: Consumer behavior: Entails all consumer activities associated with the purchase, use, and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer’s emotional, mental, and behavioral responses that precede, determine, or follow these activities consumer insight: is a deep, profound knowledge of the consumer that comes from integrating traditional marketing research tools with consumer behavior theories.
correlation vs. causationcustomer delight: goes a step beyond customer perceived value, suggesting customer benefits that not only meet, but also exceed expectations in unanticipated ways. P&G executives state that offering customers better value when they first encounter a product in the store and purchase the product, and then subsequently delighting customers during their usage experience with the product, represents fundamental “moments of truth” for the company. In other words, generating value and delight for consumers is essential for longterm success. Likewise, L’Oréal, a French cosmetic company, attempts to create customer delight by offering consumers products in its line of Nutricosmetics, products that combines cosmetics and nutrition. The company markets a “beauty pill” that reportedly firms the skin. While both cosmetics and vitamins satisfy customer needs and wants, the interconnection of the two creates unanticipated benefits for the consumer, and hence, customer delight.customer perceived value: “is the consumer’s overall assessment of the utility of a product based on perceptions of what is received and what is given.” In other words, it is the estimated net gain customers receive from their sacrifice of time, money, and effort expended to purchase, use, and dispose of a product or service (i.e., benefits versus costs).descriptive research: More structured and rigid than exploratory research, a descriptive research study is done to describe the characteristics of some group or their behaviors, or to make predictions about trends or variables. For example, a study that measures the sales trends of a product over time in relation to the economy would be a descriptive study. A study that attempts to characterize the members of a company’s target customer group by characteristics such as age, income, and education would be considered descriptive research. Data related to descriptive research design are
collected with longitudinal studies or crosssectional studies.experiments: manipulate variables in a controlled setting to determine their relationship to one another. Researchers use experiments to rule out all but one explanation for a particular observation. In designing an experiment, researchers first identify any variables that can possibly change.exploratory research: is broad, qualitative research done to generate ideas or help further formulate problems for further research. For example, a magazine faced with a drop in sales may do exploratory research to generate possible explanations. This type of research is often done when little is known about the problem or research issue. With this type of research, the researcher is usually not looking for a definitive solution to a problem, but guidance for the next step. Key descriptors of this type of research are unstructured, flexible, and general.focus group: consists of 8 to 12 participants run by a moderator who monitors and guides the group discussion of the research topic at hand. Participants are usually carefully screened so that the group members are relatively homogeneous and have the desired characteristics (age, gender, income, etc.) for the situation. The moderator usually follows a very detailed but flexible script of questions. Focus groups are conducted for a variety of reasons, including brainstorming for ideas, generating hypotheses that can be tested further, assessing new products, and evaluating promotional campaigns.
indepth interview (IDI): is a lengthy (sometimes lasting several hours), probing interview, where a carefully trained interviewer extensively questions a subject about his or her purchase motivations. individual consumers: purchase good and services to satisfy their own personal need and want or to satisfy the needs and wants of others. Such as, satisfying household uses, family car, gift purchases.Interpretivism: An alternative research approach to behavioral science that relies less on scientific and technological methodology marketing concept: the idea that firms should discover and satisfy customer needs and wants in an efficient and profitable manner, while benefiting the longterm interests of the company’s stakeholders.Today, the marketing concept is a core philosophy for many successful organizations. As a result, these successful organizations focus on delivering customer perceived value and customer delight.marketing research:is a systematic process of planning, collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data and information relevant to marketing problems and consumer behavior. Marketing research also enables businesses to better understand the market(s) in which they compete and the broader environment in order to identify opportunities and threats. Finally, consumer researchers use marketing research to analyze the effectiveness of marketing strategies, programs, and tactics.organizational consumers: Organizational consumers purchase goods and services in order to: Produce other goods or services Resell them to other organizations or to individual consumers Help manage and run their organizationInclude profit firms, and non profitprimary data: are new data collected specifically for the research purpose at hand. If we have to collect primary data, we must decide what method will be used to collect the information and how specific instruments will be designed
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