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Landforms Study Guide

by: Damola Adebola-Wilson

Landforms Study Guide GEOG 1113K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > English > GEOG 1113K > Landforms Study Guide
Damola Adebola-Wilson

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What will be on the landforms midterm
Larry Kleitches
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Damola Adebola-Wilson on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1113K at Georgia State University taught by Larry Kleitches in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS in English at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016 THE WEEK OF AUGUST 22, 2016 1. The Scientific Method - the interdependence of geographic areas, places, and locations; natural systems; processes; and societal and cultural activities over Earth's surface. Uses applied common sense in an organized and objective manner Involves:  The recognition of a problem  The collection of data through observation and experiment  The creation of models  The formulation and testing of hypotheses 2. The Five Themes of Geography –  Location o Absolute: Latitude/Longitude coordinates o Relative: In relation to another location.  Place: An area defined by particular characteristics o Human; Physical  Human-environment interaction  Movement  Region: a realm or sphere of activity or interest 3. The human characteristics and physical characteristics of place -  Human Characteristics  Physical Characteristics o People o Land Features o Culture o Mountains, plains, o Language and plateaus o Religion o Climate o Buildings and o Bodies of Water Landmarks o Cities 4. The three human-environment interactions - GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016  Humans adapt to the environment (clothing; crops that can thrive in a particular climate)  Humans modify the environment (dams; highways; cities)  Humans depend on the environment (rivers for transportation; water for everyday survival) 5. The three types of regions -  Formal [Those set through governmental or administrative boundaries, or set by physical properties]. o Georgia; Appalachia  Functional [ Set via predominant function, such asTelevision station’s viewing area; ‘Wheat Belt’; Silicon Valley) o Does not need to be uniform across the whole region. o The defining function no longer needs to exist.  Vernacular [Perception] o “The South”; “The Snowbelt”; “Appalachia” 6. The four great spheres – 1. Atmosphere - The gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth. It supplies vital elements needed to sustain all life-forms.  No atmosphere=no weather 2. Lithosphere - Earth’s crust and a portion of the upper mantle directly below the crust form the lithosphere. This outermost solid layer of the Earth provides a platform for most life-forms 3. Hydrosphere - The abiotic (non-biological) open system that includes all of the Earth’s water. 4. Biosphere - The intricate, interconnected web that links all organisms with their physical environment. FIRE LAKE 1. Endogenic and exogenic systems –  The exogenic system includes external processes that set air, water (streams and waves), and ice into motion, propelled by GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016 solar energy. This is the fluid realm of Earth's environment.  The endogenic system encompasses internal processes that produce flows of heat and material from deep below the crust, powered by radioactive decay. This is the solid realm of Earth. 2. Eon; era; period; epoch –  Eons [~1 billion years],  Eras [usually at least 50 million years],  Periods [a division of geologic time longer than an epoch and included in an era],  Epochs [usually less than tens of millions of years ago]). 3. The Anthropocene – The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch that began when human activities started to have a significant global impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems. 4. Uniformitarianism and catastrophism – Uniformitarianism assumes that Catastrophism attempts to fit the same physical processes the vastness of Earth's age and active in the environment today the complexity of its rocks into have been operating throughout a shortened time span. Because geologic time. The phrase “the there is little physical evidence present is the key to the past” to support this idea, is an expression coined to catastrophism is more describe this principle. appropriately considered a belief rather than a serious scientific hypothesis. 5. Mohorovicic and Gutenberg Discontinuities – GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016 The boundary between the crust The mantle continues to the and the rest of the lithospheric Gutenberg discontinuity at the upper mantle is another liquid outer core, with the base discontinuity called the of the mantle located about Mohorovicic discontinuity, or 1,800 mi (2,900 km) below the Moho for short, named for the earth's surface. Yugoslavian seismologist who determined that seismic waves change at this depth, owing to sharp contrasts of materials and densities. 6. The stages of compensating adjustment (isostasy) –  The principle of isostasy (that something less dense, like wood, floats in denser things like water) and the principle of balance were further developed in the 1800s into the important principle of isostasy to explain certain movements of Earth's crust. 7. The rock types {with examples} – The rock cycle, through processes in the atmosphere, crust and mantle, produces three basic rock types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.  Igneous rock is a rock that solidifies and crystalizes from a molten state (lava).  Sedimentary rock is formed through pressure –the cementation, compaction and hardening of sediment.  Metamorphic rock – Any rock (igneous of sedimentary) can be transformed into this rock type by going through profound physical or chemical changes and increased temperature. 8. Alfred Wegener – publicly presented in a lecture his idea that Earth's landmasses migrate.  “The Continental Puzzle”  Matching fossils found on different landmasses.  Similar rock types found on different landmasses  Several mountain belts that ended at one coastline, only to reappear on a landmass across the ocean.  Ancient climates 9. The three types of plate boundaries - GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016  Divergent boundaries are characteristic of seafloor spreading centers, where upwelling material from the mantle forms new seafloor, and crustal plates are spread apart.  Convergent boundaries are characteristic of collision zones, where areas of continental and/or oceanic crust collide. These are zones of compression.  Transform boundaries occur where plates slide laterally past one another at right angles to a sea-floor spreading center, neither diverging nor converging, and usually with no volcanic eruptions. TECTONICS 1. The primary sources of radioactive decay – Uranium U; Thorium Th; Potassium k) 2. Tectonic plate locations’ 3. Continental shields and platforms - The terms for heartland regions, those areas where heartland regions are exposed at the surface, and crustal pieces that have attached themselves to larger plates. GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016 4. The San Andreas Fault - Strike-Slip 5. Fracking: The process of pumping water, sand, and other materials under extremely high pressure into a well in order to extract oil and natural gas. 6. Specific locations where seismic activity connected to the above process has allegedly occurred. - Jones, Oklahoma 7. Orogenesis; orogeny; orogeny - “the birth of mountains” (oros - Greek for mountain), is the process of mountain building.  An orogeny is a mountain-building episode that thickens continental crust. 8. The Andes Mountains - It can occur through large-scale deformation and uplift of the crust in episodes of continental plate collision such as the formation of the Himalayan mountains from the collision of India and Asia, and the collision of North America  It also may include the capture of migrating terranes and cementation of them to the continental margins.  Uplift is the final act of the orogenic cycle. 9. The underground source of energy released from an earthquake - Waves 10. Aftershocks; foreshocks; primary and secondary waves; tsunamis  After Shocks - adjustments that follow a major earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes called aftershocks.  Foreshocks - Small earthquakes, often precede a major earthquake by days or, in some cases, by as much as several years.  Primary (P) waves o Push-pull (compress and expand) motion, changing the volume of the intervening material. Travel through solids, liquids, and gases  Secondary (S) waves GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016 o “Shake” motion at right angles to their direction of travel. Travel only through solids. Slower velocity than P waves  Tsunamis, or seismic sea waves - Result from vertical displacement along a fault located on the ocean floor or a large undersea landslide triggered by an earthquake - In the open ocean height is usually < 1 meter - In shallower coastal waters the water piles up to heights over 30 meters 11.Magnitude and intensity  Intensity —A measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based on the amount of damage  Magnitude —Estimates the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake 12.Caldera; cinder cone; composite volcano; shield volcano  Caladeras: large basin-shaped depressions formed when summit material on a volcanic mountain collapses inward after eruption or loss of magma.  Cinder Cones: small cone-shaped hills with a truncated top formed from cinders that predominantly accumulate during moderately explosive eruptions.  Composite volcano: mountains formed from notorious expelling enormous quantities of cinder cones, tend to have steep sides and are more conical than shield volcanoes.  Shield Volcano: A typical mountain landform built from effusive eruptions is gently sloped, gradually rising from the surrounding landscape to a summit crater, similar in outline to a shield of armor lying face up on the ground. BREAKING UP IS HARD TO DO 1. Erosion; weathering; deposition; undermining  Weathering – the breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces.  Erosion – the process where the smaller pieces (sediments) are transported by wind, gravity, glaciers, man, and running water.  Deposition – the process whereby these sediments are released (dropped) by their transporting agents. - Weathering breaks down the rocks, erosion moves GEOG1113: INTRODUCTION TO LANDFORMS, GROUP TI STUDY GUIDE DR. KLEITCHES, FALL 2016 the particles, and deposition drops the sediments in another location.  Erosion at waterfalls is called undermining. 2. The soil horizons -  O- Horizon = the very thin surface covering (not really a layer)  A – Horizon (TOPSOIL) = dark surface soil that contains a lot of living material and dead plant/animal remains (humus). This is the layer with all of the nutrients needed to grow plants.  B-Horizon (SUBSOIL) = lighter colored soil with less nutrients and more clay  C-Horizon (REGOLITH) = larger rock fragments that sit on top of the unweathered bedrock 3. Suspension; Solution; Saltation  Solution– the smallest particles of weathering are dissolved in the water and they are transported in a solution.  Suspension– clay sized/colloids are carried along with the water molecules during erosion. They are neither at the bottom nor on the top. They are suspended in the middle of the running water.  Saltation – solid sediments are rolled and bounces along the bottom of a river/stream because they are more dense. 4. Vertical and horizontal sorting; undermining; erosion; deposition  Vertical Sorting – a situation where larger particles settle on the bottom and smaller particles settle towards the top. - Happens naturally when a fast moving stream meets a large standing body of - This happens because the velocity of the water move *very quickly, such as when a waterfall empties into a lake.  Horizontal Sorting – a situation where slowly moving water enters a larger still body of water, and causes the larger particles to be deposited closer to the shoreline. Particle size decreases as you move away from the shore.


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