Popular in Social Class and Poverty
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Iana amsterdam on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 3600 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Wentworth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Social Class and Poverty in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Textbook: 1: Mills, Domhoff, Dye, Marx. 2: social reproduction 3: globalization 4: social stratification 5: ideology 6: the united states 7: a measurement of a nation’s statistical distribution of income or wealth inequality. 8: united states 9: True a. Financial capital: monetary items; wages and salaries, purchasable items b. Cultural capital: broadly shared outlooks, knowledge, skills, and behavior passed from one gen to the next c. Human capital: attainment of skills, knowledge, and expertise d. Social capital: individuals, networks, etc 10: human 11: social 12: cultural 13: functionalism 14: well paid people are not necessarily more valuable, key requirement for receiving high income is bargaining power not functional contribution, overstated sacrifice of high status jobs 15:True (again not sure true false but i think it is) 16: the proletariat’s inability to perceive that the established economic and political forces inevitably maintain their domination and exploitation. 17: true (his was about class, status, and power and he paid little attention to the system’s exploitation) 18: C. party 19. Class according to Weber 20. Authority 21. Status according to weber 22. Conspicuous consumption 23. Power elite Can Middle Class Be Saved? 24: Great Depressionjob losses more severe in middleskilled white and blue collar jobs than either highskill, whitecollar jobs or lowskill service occupations 25: Declining 26: 60 percent, 90 percent 27: E. all of the above 28: There was a zero net gain in employment. 29: It causes actual income to decline in 80 percent of the population. 30: One of every four jobs worldwide was lost in the United States. 31: True. 32: True. Class Notes: 33: false. > this is actually true i found the graph in the notes 34: true. 35:true. 36: True (Social Class) 37: true. 38: structural mobility. 39: E. a, b and c 40: D. all of the above contradiction, exploitation and alienation 41: B. class in itself, class for itself 42: C. The Virtuous Circle 43: inaccurate description or a ccurate description 44: D 45:true 46:true 47: B) The US has tended over most of its history to answer “no” to the first question and “yes” to the second. > i think this answer may be E. all of the above 48: a) Brought wages up for workers and that success placed upward pressure on whitecollar wages b) Got not only higher wages but also higher benefits (e.g. company managed pension funds paid for by workers) c) Successfully fought to reduce the work week from an average of 61 hours to under 40 hours d) All of the above 49: a. Helped invent the week end B. helped invent yearly paid vacation time C. won widespread employment based health care coverage D. reduced inequality, spread a just standard of living and helped win job security E. all of above Unions fought to reduce weekly work hours (from the widespread average of 61 hours per week) and unions helped invent the weekend and yearly vacationtime. Unions helped end child labor. Unions caused a vast reduction of economic inequality from which millions benefitted. 50:true 51: 52: D. if one examines historically from the beginning, societies that were enriched only did so in the sense of a strong central government.. Strong central governments organize economy...market economies do not develop well or powerfully in any country or nation that does not have a strong central government. A strong central government is necessary to create the fertile ground in which market driven economy is driven. Wealth does not increase without a strong central government 53:true 54:true 55:true 56: True 57: Hollowing out of US middle class Also slower economic growth, wage stagnation, reduced job opportunity, and pervasive sense of unfairness or injustice 58:D 59: False 60:C 61:false 62: I think this is truebut im not 100% positive 63:true 64: false 65: false Test 1 Soc3600 Fall 2016 Dr. William M. Wentworth The test will be based on three sources: The textbook by C. B. Doob, Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society The much annotated Atlantic magazine article of 2011, “Can the Middle Class be Saved?” (see Blackboard Content; and, Class Notes “Social Class” as posted in Blackboard Content and as delivered in class. The posted Class Notes are a much expanded version of your reading provided in the syllabus. Each question is worth 2 points. Textbook 1.Which of the following researchertheorists supports the existence of a ruling class (PowerElite)? a. Marx I dont think Marx supports the ruling class instead he is against it I believe right answer is Mills can somebody check it? Irem >I think he means supports the existence as believes in the existence not believes that it is a good thing so i think its all of the above b. ills c. omhoff d. Dye e. All of the above; and, although they differ on some of the details of its membership, they all agree that the ruling class acts for its own class interests through policy formation and government influence. 2. The concept of __________ is an emphasis on the structures and activities that transmit social inequality from one generation to the next. a. Social reproduction b. Social stratification c. Ideology d. Inequality e. lobalization 3.___________ is the increasing integration of nations in an age featuring highly reduced costs for and increased capacity in communication and transportation along with the lowering of such barriers as treaties or tariffs that restrict the international movement of goods, services, financial capital and technology a. Social reproduction b. Social stratification c. Ideology d. Inequality e. Globalization 4. __________ is a deeply embedded hierarchy providing different groups varied rewards, punishments, resources, and privileges and establishing structures and relationships that both determine and legitimate the resulting differences in opportunity and life chances. a. Social reproduction b. Social stratification c. Ideology d. Inequality e. lobalization 5. _____________ is a way of explaining and legitimating stratified inequalities using a complex of values and beliefs that support those structured inequalities a. Social reproduction b. Social stratification c. Ideology d. Inequality e. lobalization 6. In a comparison of 24 highly developed nations on a q the least disparity in quality of life between the richest 10 of the population and the poorest 10 of the population. The nation that ranked last with the greatest disparity in the quality of life between rich and poor was the ________ a. Czech Republic b. Switzerland c. United States d. inland e. rance tied with Germany 7. The Gini index is a a. Quality of life index b. A measure of interclass health inequality c. A measure of income or wealth inequality d. A measure of mortality inequality between the sexes or across income categories e. A measure of economic mobility 8. Comparing the income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10% in the societies of 24 highly developed nations showed that _________ had the greatest income inequality a. The United Kingdom b. The United States c. Italy d. srael e. Switzerland 9. Each of the various forms of capital is a form of income, wealth, credit or investment instrument. a. True b. False 10. _______ capital largely refers to knowledge, skills and expertise acquired by individuals a. ocial b. Human c. Cultural 11. _________ capital refers to the various ways in which participation in groups, organizations and networks can assist persons in attaining valued objectives a. Social b. Human c. Cultural 12. ________ capital is a concept that refers to values, perspectives, opportunities, goals and behaviors passed from one generation to the next within some social grouping a. ocial b. Human c. Cultural 13. A theory that says structured inequality is inevitable and necessary for both the equitable distribution of economic rewards and social prestige a. he Davis Moore theory b. The structuralfunctional theory c. The social constructionist theory d. The conflict theory e. a and b I believe this is ab but can somebody check it please? Thank you! > I think it is A and B too because DavisMoore theory is a part f structural function theory 14. The above theory has been criticized for a. overstating the relationship between social value contributed and economic rewards b. overstating the relation of supposed sacrifice to greater occupational reward c. understating the power of various forms of bargaining and coercion d. understating the degree of struggle and conflict e. all of the above 15. Karl Marx wrote an insightful description of the industrial society of his time. He was able to see the basic motivations and workings of the capitalism of his time, as well as its lines of social control. Karl Marx was a philosopher whose works contained within them a sociological theory of stratification based on “ownership of the current mode of production” (materialism), differing material and ideal interests among the classes, and control over the system via the two means of (1) coercive authority of government and the production of legitimating (2) false consciousness. His depiction of the classes includes small business owners (petite bourgeoisie), owners of the primary means of production who also controlled the political system (c apitalists or bourgeoisie), the workers (laboring class or proletariat) , and the poor and disreputable class or l umpenproletariat (whom today we would call the “underclass”). His main focus was on the class struggle between the capitalist and the workers. He produced a general sociology of production and a specific sociology of the impact of capitalism on the society of his times. Because he was fundamentally accurate about the tendencies of capitalism, he influenced all later class theorists. Even those who disagreed (e.g., functionalists) still wrote in his shadow. a. True b. False c. I might believe it was true if the names Marx gave to the classes were not so weird and a strange mixture of French, English and German 16. False consciousness refers to a. Beliefs that support the exploitation by one dominant class over a less powerful class b. Beliefs that support and legitimate that domination of one class by another c. Beliefs that support and explain as right or moral any unjust s tatus quo d. The belief system created by the social class that has control of the means of material production, and by that control produces the ideological means of mental control I think this is the right answer? e. All of the above (Marx stated that the ‘ruling ideas of a given age are the ideas of the ruling class’.) ******* Aside Marx was more interested in those forces that took the social world apart (“centrifugal forces” as described in lecture), while Weber was more interested in what kept it together or made it change. The world of industrial societies changed rapidly between the time Marx and Weber wrote. Weber wrote about a much more complex society and produced a more complex theory. He also took a different perspective that was both broader and more reliant on the sociologically created aspects of society that were real but not physical. These were “things” like status, p ower, authority, and the symbols of legitimation ( idealism) that supported the physical world, rather than Marx’s materialism. He was far more interested in what today would be called culture, but what he called the “spirit of the times” (“culture” had not yet taken on its strong anthropological meaning, and meant something different then). He saw culture (ideas, beliefs, symbols) as containing the “u ltimate impulses for action” and as the source for the motivations within capitalism. ******* 17. Marx saw the principal classes as either owning the means of production (factories, machines) or as owning nothing and having only their labor to sell. W eber did not tie his class theory to the factory model of property. As a result class position in his theory was more complex. a. True b. False ******* Aside For Weber social class position depended on a compounded mixture of three components. Each component Class, Status, and Party would be present by various degrees. Each component is relative: class is relative access to economic systems of production and distribution; status is the estimation of one’s prestige which estimation inevitably places one in a hierarchy of prestige (high, low and inbetween); p arty (think political party to orient yourself to this term, then think more generally about membership in sociopolitical networks that confer more or less power to their members, then go to the concept of “social capital”, p. 13 in your text). Social power is the capacity to get what one wants despite any opposition (some have great power, others a little, and everyone else is arrayed inbetween). This (the above) threecomponent analytical scheme leads to a possibly much more complex class structure than the operative scheme in Marx: owner/worker. However, Weber does say that the three components tend to “hang together”. If you rank high on one component your most likely rank high on the other two. Strata in the class system are composed of people who have similar rankings in a complex hierarchy of class, status and party. ******* 18. __________ is defined by members seeking specific outcomes in a deliberate, planned manner by imposing their will on others. a. Class b. tatus c. Party d. Authority 19. __________ is defined as a set of individuals with similar chances for gaining income and wealth and who unambiguously (similar) economic interests. a. Class b. tatus c. Party d. Authority 20. _________ is power (understood as the r ight to command) derived from position in an organization or larger structure, which position tends to provide the source of legitimacy (right). a. Class b. tatus c. Party d. Authority 21. _________ is defined as an estimation of prestige, which prestige is at least partly derived which products a person purchases. a. Class b. Status c. Party d. Authority 22. Thorstein Veblen pointed out and named a practice of the rich. They demonstrate their prestige by lavish expenditures on highpriced goods, we, in turn estimate their prestige and give them certain respect, as a result of seeing the expensive items they display. Veblen’s phrase has gone into common usage in our language. His phrase is a. Showing off b. Conspicuous consumption c. The jet set d. The Maserati people 23. The _______________ is a term referring to a relatively small collective or group of people whose positions in society allow them to control the process of determining a society’s major economic and political policies in a way that favors their own group. They are in effect an oligarchy who perpetuate a plutonomy in the US and all other developing and developed societies. In feudal times, they would be the aristocratic class, including the royal family. They form a dispersed but functional community. a. Powerelite b. The MilitaryGovernment Bloc c. The corpus communitas regius d. he institutional elite e. and d ******* Aside Thomas R. Dye, author of many editions of W ho’s Running America, set generations of graduate students on researching this small but very powerful group. The graduate students found all the clubs (secret and otherwise), country clubs, preschools, prep schools, elite universities, circles of association, networks, government positions, think tanks, policy organizations (e.g., Council on Foreign Relations), key positions of power, media control, family structure, the currencies of knowledge and opportunity, etc. that this group shares. ******* Can the Middle Class be Saved? 24. The phrase, the “hollowing of the middle class”, is used both by Jospeh E. Stiglitz and Don Peck in the Atlantic. This unfortunate form of structural mobility is caused by a. Unchanged employment in the managerial and professional jobs b. Job growth in the managerial and professional jobs c. Job loss/destruction in middleskilled white and bluecollar work d. Growth in bluecollar jobs and in jobs that pay povertylevel wages (the “working poor”) e. and d 25. Since at least 1980, the proportion of all US jobs in manufacturing has been a. eclining, and is now at about 10% b. eclining, and is now at about 22% c. ncreasing, and is now at about 10% d. ncreasing, and is now at about 14.7% e. First declined, but is now increasing to nearly 18% 26. The richest 1% of the US population earned as much each year as the bottom _____% and possessed as much wealth as the bottom _____% a. 0, 99 b. 0, 70 c. 0, 50 d. 0, 99 e. 60, 90 27. Declining wages affect marriage and family by a. ncreasing divorce rate b. ecreasing marriage rate c. Increasing partner conflict d. Increasing singleparenthood and the number of couples who live together but are not married e. All of the above 28. During the socalled “aughts” (20002009) a. There was zero net gain in the number of jobs but continued population growth of job seekers b. The income for college graduates was flat or falling c. Femalemajority occupations gained four million jobs, while manufacturing (typically malemajority) lost about the same number d. Men made no job gains in the growing job sectors of health or education e. All of the above Maybe this one is e? Look at page 19 in Atlantic 29. We are a nation of vast and growing economic inequality and decreased individual economic mobility. Growing inequality matters because a. Each year the bottom 80% of US workers gets a smaller share of all the income earned in that year, causing an actual decline in real dollar incomes for that 80% b. The considerable effect of that growing inequality is what might be called an “inequality tax” on the many by the few c. Economic growth is being built on money, credit and financial instruments (where only the very rich can benefit) rather than on a s ubstantial economy of goods, services and jobs d. The US infrastructure that provides economic efficiency for a substantial economy is not being effectively maintained or improved because the interests of the economic elite are global and financial, not national e. All of the above 30. According to the International Monetary Fund during 2008, one in every ______ jobs lost worldwide was lost in the US a. 10 b. 4 c. d. 15 e. 31. The US still manufactures a great deal, but the diversity of what we manufacture for our consumer market has massively declined a. True b. False 32. Don Peck, author of the Atlantic article says that extreme inequality causes a “cultural separation” in the class structure. This notion could be interpreted as related to the statements in class as saying that growing inequality acts as a “centrifugal force” dividing the interests of the several classes in the US. a. True b. False Class Notes 33. On average, women have higher job prestige, higher job status and jobs with higher job desirability than men. a. True b. False 34. Household income has declined despite women householders working more hours for more pay and at higher wages. a. True b. False 35. Social classes emerge historically from the division of labor and the patterns of interaction formed by those specialized tasks. These patterns “firm up” (become structural) over time; that is, they tend to persist and are even passed on across generations (parent to child) a. True b. False 36. Social class exists as a distribution of opportunities and lifeexperiences that can be measured objectively as economically defined positions within societal social structure. a. True b. False 37. Individual mobility across class lines is less probable than structural mobility. a. True b. False 38. During the first three decades after WWII, the massive emergence of the US middle classes was a case of ________ mobility a. Individual b. Exchange c. Structural d. and b 39. The three decades long, postWWII rapid growth of the middle class occurred principally in the a. orth, b. Midwest (to about Chicago) c. far West, d. n the South e. a, b and c 40. For Marx, the important centrifugal force(s) acting to make society fly apart at the seams of its class divisions were a. opposing class interests (contradiction) b. exploitation of the working class c. a sense of powerlessness and lack of identification with society or class affiliation (alienation) d. all of the above e. a and b only 41. For Marx, a class that had merely an objective position in the class structure was called _________; a class that could work within itself and on its own behalf was called a _________ a. class for itself; class in itself b. class in itself; class for itself 42. In the first decades after WWII, the _____________ became established as the norm in the relations between business and labor. a. the golden rule b. the golden reciprocity c. the virtuous circle d. the golden virtue 43. The norm alluded to in the above question meant that if production (or productivity or profits) increased, wages would be increased; if wages increased spending would of course increase, driving consumption upward. Greater consumption would of course “demand” (create) greater production. Thus, a general prosperity would widen, creating a halo effect (increased number and types of jobs), driving up production still further and increasing wages. Standards of living would rise and poverty would fall. But that norm was broken in the 1970s by corporate management who felt this normative agreement took away their power over corporations run by them and owned by shareholders. a. inaccurate description b. accurate description 44. “Whatever the manifest form of order, actual order will devolve into rule by the few.” This statement describes what is called. a. the Iron Law of Plutocracy b. the Iron Law Hierarchy c. The Iron Law of Autocracy d. The Iron Law of Oligarchy e. The Iron Law of Power 45. Democracy is a form of bottomup rule; capitalism asserts the top down rule of property over people, a vestige of feudalism. a. true b. False 46. The ruling elite comprise some .003% (not including their families) of the US population. a. true b. False 47. The questions that each developed society must ask are (1) Will we make the economy a tool to work for society – and the common good, or (2) Is society a tool to be exploited by the economy and, hence by the ruling class? a. European societies that have less inequality, more mobility, and a smaller proportion of poor have attempted to answer “yes” to the first question and “no” to the second question. b. The US has tended over most of its history to answer “no” to the first question and “yes” to the second. c. Under conditions of weaker unions, deeper government created societal organization, and better government bought international communications and banking infrastructure, answering “yes” to the second question produces a more powerful and widespread effect on the population of wage and salary workers. d. answering “yes” to the second question benefits the ruling elite, decreases the population’s sense of fairness and social justice and is not good for social cohesion (solidarity) e. all of the above 48. Unions a. brought wages up for workers and that success placed upward pressure on whitecollar wages b. got not only higher wages but also higher benefits (e.g., company managed pension funds paid for by workers) c. successfully fought to reduce the work week from an average of 61 hours to under 40 hours d. all of the above 49. Unions a. helped invent the “weekend” b. helped invent yearly paid vacation time c. won widespread employmentbased health care coverage d. reduced inequality, spread a just standard of living and helped win job security e. all of the above 50. Historically, no industrial democracy has developed a strong capitalist economy without having a strong central government. a. true b. False 51. By analogy government acts toward society and its economy as management acts toward a business. a. true b. False 52. In the US and elsewhere among strong capitalist nations, the central government a. Protects the investment and commercial environments for capitalists with trade agreements, research investments, naval patrols, subsidies and tax breaks, creates uniform credit laws, regulates and insures banks, helps regularize international trade and the movement of capital, etc. b. Establishes, supervises and maintains the infrastructure necessary for commerce (highways and bridges, ports, satellite systems and launchings, massive undersea communication cables, power grid maintenance and upgrades, uniform environmental laws, railways subsidies, etc.) c. Helps insure an educated trained workforce, indirectly subsidizes collegelevel tuition, funds vital research at universities, helps to insure institutional nondiscrimination in education on the basis of sex (Title IX provisions to the civil rights Act), etc. d. all of the above 53. There are more women among the poor than there are men. One of the main reasons for this is that the conditions of poverty kill men at about four times the rate as poverty kills women. a. true b. false (The differential mortality rate among the poor is biologically identical to the fact of there being more women among the elderly than there are men. Plus: There are social and cultural reasons that raise the mortality rates of poor men.) 54. The present stage of class history started with the invention of a new organization of production and work: the factory system. This started the separation of the home place from the workplace. a. True b. False (Capitalism massively predated factory production. That is why it is called the Industrial Revolution and not the Capitalist Revolution.) 55. There is a graph on document p.39 of the class notes handout. It gives visual representation to the distribution of household income in the present US. The middle class is depicted as the set of housesymbols between the vertical red lines superimposed on the graph; there are 95 house symbols in the middle class area of the graph. a. Those 95 house symbols show the middle class still to be the numerically l argest income grouping. b. The middle class makes up 40% of the household incomes c. The middle class did not become the largest class until after WWII, when it exploded in size d. People in the middle class identify a s middle class (a “class in itself”) but do not identify with the middle class (not a “class for itself”) e. All of the above Source Material: Nine Myths Concerning Inequality in the U.S. 56. Capitalism instills in capitalists a cultural tendency to desire and justify unhindered access to profit from economic activity. This cultural tendency leads to growing structured inequality. At the same time, capitalism and its market activity require the myriad resources of society in order to exist at all, much less to gain profit. Society is the well from which the water of profit is drawn. a. Large and growing inequalities are inevitable b. All advanced capitalist nations are democracies. They must each decide how to counteract unhindered growth of inequality by policies designed to maintain the common good. c. Among advanced capitalist democracies, the U.S. does the most effective redistribution of value to counteract inequality, and create benefits that strengthen the common good d. As a result of our redistributive policies, the U.S. is the wealthiest nation with the wealthiest people 57. Structured inequality is both the result of and an ongoing process of exploitation of societal wealth without the creation of wealth. Since the late 1970s the U.S. has felt the effects of growing structured inequality. Stated differently, the wealthy are taking a larger share of the economic pie without making the economic pie grow proportionately larger. This ‘rent seeking’ (an economic term) has led to a. an unprecedented growth of middle class jobs and the concomitant expansion in the size of the middle class b. slower economic growth and wage stagnation c. reduced job opportunity, a hollowing out of the middle class, and a pervasive sense of unfairness d. b and c, above 58. Choose correct response: a. Taxes on the rich and on corporations decrease economic growth rates b. Taxes on the rich and on corporations create a pathway for the support of the society, which, in turn, actually creates the conditions for production and wealth. c. Taxation on wealth removes value from sequestration (money outside the circle/circuit of the full economy), this value can then be invested in infrastructures that create the assets for still greater national wealth d. b and c, above 59. The ‘trickledown effect’ is a powerful engine to enhance the common good. The trickledown effect has been supported and proven time and time again in real economic systems, by computer modelling and is supported by theoretical analysis. a. False b. True c. The trickledown effect works only in the free market system found in the U.S. 60. Choose: a. the rich are the job creators and their wealth must be protected to enable them use it to create jobs b. jobs are created by lowering wages and lowering taxes c. jobs are created (net growth in the number of jobs) by mostly small, new firms that enter the market, succeed, and, as a result of their success, expand their workforce d. net increases in the number of jobs in a national economy are almost always the product of large, stable corporations 61. Poverty, and child poverty in particular, are relatively low in the U.S. (as compared to other advanced OECD nations). This is because because our social expenditures are relatively high and we do so much to get the poor better jobs (“the working poor” make up 23% of the US poor) or get them back into the workforce a. True b. False 62. Federal government deficit reduction is always a good thing because it has the effect of triggering increased demand within the national economy. a. True b. False 63. Never in history has an economy become rich and strong without the insuring presence and foundationlaying capacity of a strong central government. Obviously, this statement would include all current capitalist democracies. a. True b. False 64. Completely free markets are the best and most stable environments for investment, profitmaking and innovation. a. This is a repeatedly proven truth. b. There has never been a national free market, but ‘freeish’ markets with low government regulatory interference tend to have high amplitude boombust cycles, are generally unstable, succumb to ‘regulation’ by monopolies, and encourage all manner of “cheaters”. 65. Capitalism is both a moral system and an economic system. Capitalists always try to look out for the society in which their economic activity takes place. That good ol’ capitalist moral conscience is why we do not need environmental pollution laws, workplace and mine safety regulation, autosafety laws, political donation and lobbying regulation, interstate commerce regulation, product safety laws, the consumer protection agency, minimum wage floors, universal health care, government research funding for every invention that has defined the meaning and convenience of precisely modern life, nor a paid family leave law like nearly every other country in the world have. That strong capitalist moral spirit would prevent the businesses of slavery, sex trafficking, sweatshop labor conditions and even the misuse of agricultural pesticides if only capitalists could get the government off their backs. a. True. Hallelujah! b. False and ridiculous.
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