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BSU - BIOL 300 - Class Notes - Week 7

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BSU - BIOL 300 - Class Notes - Week 7

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background image Pathophysiology: Chapter 11 - Disorders of White Blood Cells and 
Lymphoid Tissue
Development of Blood Cells  o Pluripotent Stem Cells  In bone marrow Develop into Committed Progenitor Cells: develop into 
specialized cells
Lymphoid Stem Cells and Myeloid Stem Cells  o Multipotent Stem Cells Hematopoietic: complete maturation in bone marrow (B cells) Lymphopoietic: travel to lymph tissues to complete maturation  (T cells)  Types of White Blood Cells o Granulocytes Neutrophils Neutral staining granules  60 to 65% of WBCs  Contain 3-5 lobar nuclei  Maintain normal host defense against foreign agents  First to arrive to area during inflammation Eosinophils Granules stain red  1 to 3% of WBCs  Increase in number during allergic reactions  Basophils  Granules stain blue  0.3 to 0.5% of WBCs (least numerous)  Contain heparin, histamine, and inflammatory mediators 
background image Related to mast cells o Agranulocytes Lymphocytes 30% of WBCs  Reside in lymph organs  3 types o B Cells  humoral mediated immunity  Mature in the bone marrow  o T Cells  cell mediated immunity  Mature in the thymus  o Natural Killers  innate immunity  Destroy foreign cells  Monocytes/Macrophages  3 to 8% of WBCs  Largest cells Mature in bone marrow  Phagocytize bacteria and tissue debris during 
Lymphoid Tissues  o Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen
o B Cells, T Cells, and Natural Killers in nodes 
o Lymph vessels collect extra fluid from the tissues and bring it through 
the nodes to be filtered for pathogens  Disorders of White Blood Cells  o Normal numbers = 4,500 to 10,500 
o Leukopenia 
Decrease in number of leukocytes in blood  Most often affects neutrophils  o Aplastic Anemia  All myeloid stem cells are affected (monocytes, granulocytes, 
erythrocytes, megakaryocytes) 
Causes anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis: virtual absence of neutrophils o Neutropenia Abnormally low number of neutrophils  Less than 1500 Can be mild, moderate, or severe  Risk for recurrent/severe bacterial infections – neutrophils are 
first defense 
Congenital Hereditary  Kostmann Syndrome (autosomal recessive)  Periodic/Cyclic Neutropenia (autosomal dominant)  o Periods of low neutrophils, and periods of normality  Acquired  Caused by aplastic anemia, chemotherapy, radiation Fetly syndrome 
background image Splenomegaly   o Infectious Mononucleosis Viral infection caused by Epstein Barr Virus  Spread y contact with oral secretions  Process Virus spreads to B cells Either kills B cell or incorporates itself into the cell’s DNA Infected B cells proliferate and produce heterophil 
o Presence of heterophils used to diagnose mono Once infected, you are asymptomatically infected for life  Time from exposure to symptoms is 4 to 8 weeks  Increase in number of WBCs  Acute phase of 2 to 3 weeks Symptoms: malaise, anorexia, chills, fever, pharyngitis (sore 
throat), enlarged lymph nodes, hepatitis, splenomegaly, nausea,
Treatment: bed rest, analgesics, and anti-inflammatories to treat
Leukemia  o Malignant neoplasms of cells coming from myeloid or lymphoid stem  cells  o Risk Factors  Ionizing radiation Chemotherapy  May occur as a 2 nd  cancer after aggressive treatment for  another cancer Family history  o Causes chromosomal abnormalities that disrupt normal blood cell  development   o Complications Leukostasis: blast cell count is elevated  Increases blood viscosity Can cause obstruction of small blood vessels  Hyperuricemia: increased proliferation or breakdown of purine 
nucleotides after leukemic cell death from chemotherapy 
o Four Types  Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Most common in children Neoplasms grow composed of immature B cells and T 
Symptoms: bleeding, fatigue, anemia, fever, weight loss, 
night sweats, bone pain
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Most common in adults  Rarely seen in people younger than 40  Clonal malignancy of B cells 
background image Can progress slowly without symptoms or be rapidly fatal  Diagnosed by increase in number of lymphocytes  Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (AML) Most common in adults  Neoplasms grow affecting myeloid stem cells in bone 
Symptoms: bleeding, fatigue, anemia, fever, weight loss, 
night sweats, bone pain
Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia (CML) Excessive proliferation of myeloid stem cells in bone 
Develops when a stem cell acquires a Philadelphia 
3 Phases  o 1. Chronic Phase
o 2. Short Accelerated Phase 
o 3. Terminal Blast Crisis Phase 
Lymphoma  o Solid tumors composed of neoplastic lymphoid cells 
o Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
One of the most common cancers  Tumors originate from malignant transformation of B cell and T 
cells during their maturation processes 
Symptoms: fever, night sweats, weight loss, increased 
susceptibility to infections, impaired humoral immunity 
o Hodgkin Lymphoma Presence of Reed Sternberg cells Release factors that induce the accumulation of 
lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes 
Symptoms: enlargement of a single lymph node (usually above 
diaphragm), fever, chills, night sweats, weight loss, impaired 
cellular immunity, fatigue, anemia
Multiple Myeloma o Proliferation of malignant plasma cells in bone marrow and osteolytic  bone lesions  o Associated with chromosomal abnormalities  
o Unregulated production of M protein and Bence Jones proteins
o Proliferation and activation of osteoclasts
Cause bone reabsorption and destruction  Impaired production of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets  o More cases in men and African-Americans
o Symptoms: fractures, hypercalcemia, high viscosity of blood, 
susceptibility to recurrent infections 

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School: Boise State University
Department: Biology
Course: Pathophysiology
Professor: Jennifer Legget
Term: Fall 2016
Name: Pathophysiology Chapters 11, 12, 13, and 17
Description: These are notes taken in the fourth week of class. Topics include disorders of white blood cells, disorders of red blood cell, disorders of hemostasis, and control of cardiovascular function
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
20 Pages 21 Views 16 Unlocks
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