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UGA - PHYS 2200 - Class Notes - Week 4

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UGA - PHYS 2200 - Class Notes - Week 4

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background image Chapter 6 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System (pg. 216-220): Bone (osseous tissue):  o Hard, dense connective tissue that forms skeleton. 
o Supports the body 
o Bone marrow:
Yellow marrow: contains adipose tissue  Red marrow: produces blood cells (red, white, 
platelets)
o Mostly inorganic material: Hydroxyapatite- gives bone its hardness and strength o Cells of the bone: Osteoblast-forms new bone through synthesis and 
secretion of collagen and calcium  
Osteocyte- osteoblast that is trapped in the matrix it 
deposited 
Osteogenic cells: mitotically active bone cells that 
develop into osteoblasts 
Osteoclast- breaks down bone  Cartilage: o Spongy bone 
o Semi-ridged connective tissue 
o Provides flexibility 
Skeletal system: o System made of bone and cartilage
o Functions:
Support body Allow movement Point of attachment for muscles  Protect organs Produce blood cells Store and release minerals and fats Particularly calcium and phosphorus  6.3 Bone structure (pg. 222-232): Long bone: o Diaphysis: shaft running between proximal and distal end  of the bone Composed of dense bone  Hollow region known as medullary cavity which 
contains yellow marrow 
background image Contains nutrient foramen- opening through which 
arteries enter to bring nutrients 
o Epiphysis: proximal and distal ends of long bone Contain red marrow Composed of spongy bone  o Endosteum: inner lining of medullary cavity   Site of bone growth, repair, and remodeling  o Periosteum: outer cover of bone  Contains blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels Covers all of bone except where bone meets bone to 
form a joint 
o Articular cartilage: layer of cartilage covering epiphysis  Acts as shock absorber  Flat bone  o Consists of flat layer of spongy bone lined on both sides  with compact bone o Markings: Articulation-two bone surfaces come together  Projection- region of bone that projects from surface 
of bone 
Hole- opening in bone for blood vessels and nerves  6.4 Bone Formation and Development  Ossification: process of bone development  o Ossification center: early cluster of osteoblast that will  eventually spread out to become bone tissue  o Intramembranous ossification: compact and spongy bone  develop directly from sheets of undifferentiated connective
tissue 
o Endochondral ossification: bone develops by replacing  hyaline cartilage  Primary ossification center- region deep with in 
where ossification begins
Secondary ossification center- centers of ossification 
in the epiphyseal regions 
Reserve zone: region closest to the epiphyseal region
where chondrocytes secures epiphyseal plate 
(growth plate) to osseous tissue. 
Proliferative zone: next layer towards diaphysis. 
Contains larger. Site of mitosis of chondrocytes 
o Appositional growth: Bone growth in diameter Bone grows thicker through intramembranous 
ossification 

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School: University of Georgia
Department: Physics
Course: Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Ann Massey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anatomy and Physiology
Name: Anatomy and Physiology I, chapter 6 reading notes
Description: These notes cover the reading for chapter 6 of the opens tax textbook.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
3 Pages 13 Views 10 Unlocks
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