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Chapter 66.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System (pg. 216-220):Bone (osseous tissue): o Hard, dense connective tissue that forms skeleton. o Supports the body o Bone marrow:Yellow marrow: contains adipose tissue Red marrow: produces blood cells (red, white, platelets)o Mostly inorganic material:Hydroxyapatite- gives bone its hardness and strengtho Cells of the bone:Osteoblast-forms new bone through synthesis and secretion of collagen and calcium Osteocyte- osteoblast that is trapped in the matrix it deposited Osteogenic cells: mitotically active bone cells that develop into osteoblasts Osteoclast- breaks down bone Cartilage:o Spongy bone o Semi-ridged connective tissue o Provides flexibility Skeletal system:o System made of bone and cartilage o Functions:Support bodyAllow movementPoint of attachment for muscles Protect organsProduce blood cellsStore and release minerals and fatsParticularly calcium and phosphorus 6.3 Bone structure (pg. 222-232):Long bone:o Diaphysis: shaft running between proximal and distal end of the boneComposed of dense bone Hollow region known as medullary cavity which contains yellow marrow
Contains nutrient foramen- opening through which arteries enter to bring nutrients o Epiphysis: proximal and distal ends of long boneContain red marrowComposed of spongy bone o Endosteum: inner lining of medullary cavity Site of bone growth, repair, and remodeling o Periosteum: outer cover of bone Contains blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vesselsCovers all of bone except where bone meets bone to form a joint o Articular cartilage: layer of cartilage covering epiphysis Acts as shock absorber Flat bone o Consists of flat layer of spongy bone lined on both sides with compact boneo Markings:Articulation-two bone surfaces come together Projection- region of bone that projects from surface of bone Hole- opening in bone for blood vessels and nerves 6.4 Bone Formation and Development Ossification: process of bone development o Ossification center: early cluster of osteoblast that will eventually spread out to become bone tissue o Intramembranous ossification: compact and spongy bone develop directly from sheets of undifferentiated connective tissue o Endochondral ossification: bone develops by replacing hyaline cartilage Primary ossification center- region deep with in where ossification beginsSecondary ossification center- centers of ossification in the epiphyseal regions Reserve zone: region closest to the epiphyseal region where chondrocytes secures epiphyseal plate (growth plate) to osseous tissue. Proliferative zone: next layer towards diaphysis. Contains larger. Site of mitosis of chondrocytes o Appositional growth:Bone growth in diameterBone grows thicker through intramembranous ossification
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School: University of Georgia
Course: Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Ann Massey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anatomy and Physiology
Name: Anatomy and Physiology I, chapter 6 reading notes
Description: These notes cover the reading for chapter 6 of the opens tax textbook.
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