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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aalyha Giles on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 002 at East Carolina University taught by Jo Ann Phipps in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Anthropology 1000 in ANTH at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Ant 1000 Jo Phipps Exam #1 Study Guide (Units 1-4) Unit 1: What is Anthropology (includes Applied) Organization of Knowledge in Western World -Humanities and Sciences (natural and social) Definition and focus of Anthropology -Four subfields: Biological/Physical, Archaeology (Historic and Prehistoric in the US), Cultural, and Linguistic Anthropology (know the focus of each) Definition and focus of Applied Anthropology (how is it different from the traditional four subfields?) Examples: Cultural Resource Management, Forensic Anthropology, Corporate/Consumer Anthropology, Urban Anthropology (see textbook for other examples) -Medical Anthropology (Western definitions of disease and cures vs. other cultural definitions as illness and healing) What characteristics make Anthropology a science? What methods do all sciences use? What is the holistic perspective? What research methods make Anthropology unique among the sciences? -Fieldwork: Excavation and Ethnography -Goal: to discover patterns in human behavior Unit 2: Doing Anthropology Evidence we use to study the past: artifacts/ecofacts, features, fossils -Sites: preserved areas of human activity Know how sites can be created (Pompeii effect and Stratified sites), and how they can be altered/destroyed (bioturbation, taphonomy studies) Know what methods we use to find potential sites -Passive methods: Systematic/pedestrian survey, geomagnetics -Active methods: ground-penetrating radar, shovel test pits Know the goals of excavation (recover significant samples, detailed record of horizontal and vertical locations of artifacts and features for context) Dating techniques (relative methods vs. absolute methods) -Carbon 14 and Potassium-Argon Know how and why we create typologies (formal and metric ones) What can we learn from artifacts, features and fossils in terms of the bigger picture of human history Know how and why we do Ethnography -Participant Observation, using informants -Emic and Etic perspectives Types of ethnographic work: longitudinal studies, team research, survey research Know these terms: -Naïve realism -Ethnocentrism -Cultural Relativism Ethics in Anthropology Know the primary ethical obligations: protect people we study, share research with scientific community, protect human species and our environments Know the steps in research protocol: explain goals of project, explain methods used, get informed consent Unit 3: Culture Makes Us Human What is the concept of culture and its main characteristics? -primary adaptive tool -learned through enculturation -shared -integrated -abstract -dynamic How and why can a culture become extinct? -cultural continuum (what is it and how does it function) -spread of globalization and Westernization Know what basic evolutionary traits allow humans to develop and use culture. Know the types of cultural traits: universals, generalities, and particularities What are the origins of cultural practices? -Diffusion -Invention (unconscious and intentional) -Acculturation Unit 4: Language and Communication Be able to define: Communication Language Call system Know the four characteristics of Language: -learned -displacement -arbitrary -productive What are the subfields of Linguistics and their research focuses? Know the four parts of Language: -phonemes -morphemes -lexicon -syntax What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (Sociolinguistics)? What types of linguistic variations are there? -Style shifts -Diglossia -Speech differences based on gender and status (stratification and symbolic domination) Know factors why languages are similar (Historical Linguistics): -Contact -anatomical limitations -sister languages
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