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Bus 440 - Class Notes - Week 11

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Bus 440 - Class Notes - Week 11

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background image Chapter 8  Historical Approaches to Project Management 
-critical path analysis
-listing each of the major activities required by this project
-precise in specification of all the individual activities that are 
necessary to complete a project 
-identify the “choke points” in the project – where a number of 
preparatory activities must be completed in order for progress to 
-provide a convenient for monitoring the ongoing work on the project, 
allowing one to track the progress of individual activities and make 
decisions whether to add or remove resources from it if progress or 
slower or faster than expected 
-critical path: sequence of activities, showing the longest time to 
-assume a project’s activities and their sequence are known and  defined  -doesn’t show overlap which is the key to speed up project 
completing time (some step can start before the previous step 
-essentially numerical and mechanical; human and people issues
do not count into the analysis; unexpected changes
-stage-gate approaches -project activities are grouped into a few rough sequential chunks, 
phases, or stages (like concept development, detailed design, 
prototype development)
-common road map enables a consistent approach to the development 
process  -managers can form formal review point, commit resources in a fashion
similar to that venture capitalists use when funding new enterprise
-critical decisions about scope and direction
-the more one attempt to control a set of a project from on high, 
the greater the demands on top management time, the more 
time projects wait at a gate while awaiting a review and the less 
project teams are able to adapt to changing technologies and 
competitive environment 
-not flexible in innovation 
-different products require different process
-not taking organizational issues
-Seeding: encouraging an extensive and rich mix of potential project ideas
background image -Weeding and feeding: selecting which idea to turn into formal projects and 
providing those projects with the appropriate people, managers and resource
-Cultivating: maintaining an appropriate mix of projects under development, 
establishing priorities among them, modifying them as new information 
becomes available and pushing them through to completion 
-Plowing under : many projects lose their attractiveness or require resource 
that can be more profitable somewhere else; kill the bad projects along 
background image Chapter 1: Operation Management Confronts a New Millennium NAOs – new approaches to operations: TQM (total quality management), JIT (just-in-
time), DFM (design for manufacturability), QFD (quality function deployment), QPD 
(quick product/ process development) and CIM (computer integrated 
Limits of the NAOs - Lack of commitment on the part of top management and lack of enthusiasm and
poor implementation by lower level managers
- Inconsistent goals to the company Business Process Reengineering (BPR) - Contrast to lean manufacturing  - Restructure business processes - Transforming process that had been organized by process stages into direct-line 
flows. Narrow jobs under close supervision in a hierarchical organization is 
replaced by broader jobs performed by teams or multiskilled people in horizontal
- More difficult to expand or contract  - Tend to constrain the development of markedly different new product - Provide less opportunity for special expertise or exceptionally capable workers New World Economy – the end of twentieth century  - Globalization
The collapse of the Soviet empire in the late 1980s led to a repudiation of 
state-controlled central planning around the world 
- Advances in information technology and corporate organization made 
managing foreign operations much easier tha never before 
- Companies combined the power of IT with an increased willingness to 
outsource operations to create novel types of partnership with customers
- Advanced technology - Network partnerships, where key outputs and productive assets are primarily 
intellectual—information and “knowledge” –rather than physical
Traditional basic assumptions of operation - The organizational unit of analysis is an operating unit (make decision rather 
than involve people outside your control)
- Operations management is concerned primarily with stable products - The major responsibility of operations managers is to control the flow of 
materials through a sequence of process steps
- A major concern of operations managers is reducing the variable cost of 
- Your competitor are your enemies Information-intensive operations
background image - The cost structure is dominated by the up-front costs associated with 
developing a new product and creating its associated production/delivery 
o Marginal cost of producing and delivering an incremental unit is both  generally quite small and essentially independent of the distance 
between producer and consumer.
o Costly to produce but cheap to reproduce / “expensive to innovate,  cheap to imitate” o Two direct implications: Suggests that project management is at least as important as 
process management
Achieving low cost is less dependent on effective process 
management, or even continuous improvement, than it is on 
high cumulative output
Network effect - The increasing attractiveness to users of certain kinds of networks as they 
increase in size
- Speed to market becomes a key driver to low cost because you can gain volume 
Speed vs. Quality vs. Flexibility  Partner, Collaborators and Co-opetitors - Encourage others to join with it in providing services through a common network - Compatibility is often as important to success as is differentiation Old Economy vs. New Economy Operations
background image Co-production: a company allocates some of its activities to its own customers; save
money for both

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School: 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months
Department: Business
Course: Operation Strategy
Professor: Rosenthal
Term: Spring 2016
Name: OM440 Notes
Description: Notes from the textbook
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
37 Pages 10 Views 8 Unlocks
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