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PSY 371 - Class Notes - Week 11

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PSY 371 - Class Notes - Week 11

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background image Chapter 8 Eating and Sleep Disorder  Kinsey and Watson 
Master and Johnson 
Sexual dysfunctions; stages; sexual response cycles; orgasmic conditioning; 
sensitization
Pathway to substance use
Bulimia and anorexia 
DSM 5 substance use- new disorder Gambling 
Diagnostic substance use disorder: main change from DSM 4-5  craving 
Liking and wanting; relation to evolution
Drugs belong to different categories (hallucigens)
Allen Lashler; article title; “it matter” to whom it address (congress; policy 
makers) and why to address
Most dangerous drug – mortality 
Pica 
-e.g. cigarette butts 
Rumination
-giraffe usually do that but not human 
binge eating 
-once a week for 3 months 
BMI
-ratio between height and weight; body mass index 
Bulimia Nervosa
-presence of compensatory behaviors distinguish it from binge eating 
-purging (vomiting and losing almost 50% of the calories); most  common  Anorexia
-don’t see themselves too thin 
-have to be underweight 
Sleep disorder
-dyssomnias: how good is your sleep 
-measure muscle tone
-how much you move during sleep
-sleep efficiency: how much in bed you spend in bed 
-narcolepsy 
-cataplexy: when people are awake suffering muscle weakness 
background image -sleep paralysis Nicotin is the most addictive 
Smoking and alcohol kills most people 
Book:
-bulimia rose dramatically
-more in younger age group; female living in social competitive environment 
-included as a separate disorder since DSM4 
-sociocultural factor is the key 
-obesity is not officially a disorder in DSM; based on BMI
Bulimia Nervosa
-eating a large amount of food – hallmark; out of control 
-compensate for the binge eating and potential weight gain by purging 
techniques (self-induced vomiting immediately after eating)
-self-esteem is determined by weight and the shape of his body
-electrolyte imbalance: chemical imbalance of bodily fluids including sodium 
and potassium levels 
-co-occur with mood and anxiety disorder and substance abuse disorder
-within 10% of normal weight 
-shamed of both eating issues and lack of control 
Anorexia Nervosa
-nervous loss of appetite
-different from Bulimia Nervosa because of successful weight loss 
(extraordinary control)
-modeling world 
-less common than bulimia 
-intense fear of obesity 
-seldom seek treatment on their own 
-related to depression, OCD and drug abuse disorder
-more resistant to treatment 
Binge eating disorder 
-binge eating without compensatory behavior 
eating disorder
-majority are women 
-onset from 18-21 
-cause: 
-social: tenderness in media; female rated their current figures as 
much heavier than what they judged as attractive, which was rated as 
heavier than what they thought was ideal; men rated their ideal size 
background image and current size and the size attractive as approximately equal; peer 
pressure; family influences
-biological: serotonin
-psychological: diminished sense of personal control and confidence; 
preoccupied with how they appear to others
-treatment: -Prozac FOR BINGE EATING 
-short term CBT target problem eating behavior and associated 
attitudes about the overriding importance of body weight and shape 
(family and interpersonal help)
-for bulimia nervosa: cbt-e by Fairburn ((preferred than drugs and IPT)
-1. Teach physical consequences 
-2. Altering dysfunctional thoughts and attitudes about body 
shape, weight and eating 
-for binge eating:  -IPT and CBT are effective but not Prozac  -for Anorexia Nervosa -the key is to gain weight to low-normal range at least 
-CBT and family therapy (focus on the negative communication 
and attitudes toward body shape 
-prevention -selective approach: educate people with high risk; “Healthy Weight” Obesity 
-two maladaptive eating patterns
-binge eating
-night eating syndrome: awake and eat a third or more of daily intake 
after evening meal and get out of bed at least once during the night to 
have a high-calorie snack
-causes -modernization: inactive, sedentary life style 
-genes accounts for 30%
-sociocultural factors 
-treatment  -self-directed weight loss program (diet book); work in short term
-commercial self-help program like Weight Watchers 
-professionally directed behavior modification (most effective)
-bariatric surgery 
-more successful in children than adult
Sleep-wake disorder 
-dyssomnias: difficulties in getting enough sleep, problems with sleeping 
when you want to and complaints about the quality of sleep 
-parasomnias: abnormal behavioral or physiological events that occur during 
sleep, such as nightmares and sleepwalking
background image -the clearest and most comprehensive picture of sleep habit can be 
determined only by a polysomnographic (PSG) evaluation: spend nights in 
sleep laboratory and measure eye movement (eletrooculogram), leg 
movement, respiration and oxygen desaturation, muscle movements 
(electromyogram), heart activity (electrocardiogram)
-actigraph: records the number of arm movement and collect data on length 
and quality of sleep 
-sleep efficiency: percentage of time actually spent asleep not just lying in 
bed (50% means half of the time trying to sleep)
-insomnia disorder: 
-difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, nonrestoractive  sleep (sleep a reasonable number of hours but not rested the next day) -a third of population 
-women twice likely 
-causes
-sleep apnea: obstructed nighttime breathing 
-periodic limb movement disorder (excessive jerky leg 
movement)  -predisposing conditions (family history)
-poor sleep hygiene (daily activities affect how we sleep)
-jet lag 
-rebound insomnia: sleep problems reappear when medication is  withdrawn
-hypersomnolence disorder 
-sleep too much -narcolepsy -cataplexy: a sudden loss of muscle tone; usually precede by strong  emotion like anger  -directly goes to REM sleep 
-two characteristics
-sleep paralysis: a brief period after awakening when they can’t  move or speak -hypnagogic hallucination: vivid and terrifying experience that 
begin at the start of sleep and are said to be unbelievably 
realistic (UFO)
-breathing related sleep disorders -loud snoring, interrupted breathing, sleep apnea (short period stop 
breathing), heavy sweating at night or headaches in the morning 
-apnea
-obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome: airflow stops 
despite continued activity by the respiratory system (snoring); 
increasing in age might cause it
-central sleep apnea: complete cessation of respiratory activity 
for brief periods; associated with central nervous system 
disorders; not seek treatment by themselves
background image -sleep-related hypoventilation: a decrease in airflow without a 
complete pause in breathing
-circadian rhythm sleep disorder  -brain’s inability to synchronize sleep patterns with the current 
patterns of day and night
-work schedule, jet lag, delayed sleep phase, advanced sleep phase, 
irregular sleep-wake (highly varied sleep cycle), non-24-hout sleep-
wake (later and later bed time)
-melatonin
-treatment:  -medication (not for long term use); continuous positive air pressure 
machine for obtrusive sleep apnea
-phase delay is easier to treat than phase advance 
-bright light 
-relaxation treatment 
-parasomnias -nightmares: awaken the person and distressful
-sleep terrors: most in children; begin with a piercing scream; NREM, so
not due to dream; cannot be easily awakened and comforted; 
treatment: wait and see or scheduled awakening 
-sleep walking (somnambulism): NREM, hard to awakened and not 
remember what has happened’ primarily in children 
-nocturnal eating syndrome: rise from bed and eat while still asleep
-night eating syndrome
-sexsomnia: act out sexual behaviors such as masturbation and sexual 
intercourse with no memory of the event 

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School: 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Lyons
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Name: PS371 Notes
Description: From textbook and lecture
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
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