PSYC 1315-005 Notes for Test 1
PSYC 1315-005 Notes for Test 1 PSYC 1315-005
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Jimenez on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1315-005 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Craig Nagoshi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
PSYC 1315-005 Chapter 1 August 30,2016 Psychology I. Defined but content and the scientific method II. Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental process systematic methods thoughts, feelings, what can be well motives observed III. Methodology: The scientific study IV. Behavior vs. mental Processes-Body vs. mind V. Neural process becomes the mental process *Types of Psychology I. Experimental: take subjects and test them and they behave differently What makes an experiment I. All participants are exactly alike, except for what we do to them II. Randomly assigned, but both groups are the same III. Measure behavior mental process IV. Correlation studies V. Science: converting phenomenon to certain measures; psychometrics VI. Extrovert: intense interaction in the world, excited about reality VII. Psychopath: self-centered, believe the world exists just to serve them *Traditions I. Biological (behavior is caused by a physiological process; in the brain) II. Analytic (the fluctuation of results) III. Psychoanalysis (unconscious motivation; the idea that stuff is going on in your mind causing IV. you to do things) V. Behaviors (all behavior results from learning, reinforcement and punishment VI. Humanistic (idea on conscious, mental stuff determines behavior) VII. Cognitive (human as a computer, information processes) History of Psychology I. Western Philosophy II. Biology and Physiology a. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) i. In 1879 Established the first psychology lab ii. Structuralism 1. Structures of the mind 2. Introspection 3. Systematic, detailed self-report PSYC 1315-005 Chapter 1 August 30,2016 Contemporary Approaches I. Biological (it is all physical, the brain is the physical basis of all thoughts and emotions) a. In terms of ethics and morality is based on what feels good or bad b. Neuroscience i. Nervous system a. Structure b. Function c. Development d. Genetics e. Biochemistry II. Behavioral (how environment determines behavior) a. Environmental determinants of observable behavior b. Rejects Explanations, referencing thought c. Notable behaviorists i. Ian Pavlov ii. John Watson iii. B.F. Skinner III. Psychodynamic (the idea that there is a subconscious process) a. Freud i. Psychoanalysis a. Unconscious thought b. Conflict between biological drives and demands of society c. Early childhood family experiences IV. Humanistic (conscious/free will) a. Positive Human Qualities b. Cognitive mental processes involved in knowing c. Information processing d. How we interpret information, weigh it, store it , and apply it e. Evolutionary (explains human behavior) f. Adaptation g. Reproduction h. Natural selection V. Sociocultural (social and cultural environments) a. Differences between ethnic and cultural groups Realms of Psychology I. Physiological II. Consciousness/free will a. Consciousness is free will, as human being it differentiates us from animals PSYC 1315-005 Chapter 2 September 1, 2016 Scientific Method I. Observation a. Look at a phenomenon. II. Hypothesis a. A specific prediction of your measurement. i. Testable prediction ii. Derived from theory b. Theories are general c. Hypotheses are specific III. Test a. The difference of the two groups IV. Conclusion a. Goes back to the hypothesis to say whether or not it was right. V. Evaluate a. See what the results were after the conclusion you made and look over it. Correlation Research I. All scientific research correlates II. Correlation coefficient: r III. (-1.00) less than/equal to r less than/equal to 1.00 a. Direction of relationship: (+/-) b. Strength of relationship: magnitude (no relationship)0-1 IV. Measured as a. Weak (1-25) b. Moderate (26-50) c. Strong (51-75) d. Very strong (76-99) e. Perfect (100) V. Positive Correlation a. Factors vary in same direction VI. Negative Correlation a. Factors vary in opposite direction VII. Correlation does not equal causation (understanding when something happens it makes something else happen) a. ex. Why is parental harshness correlated with child rebellion? i. Harsh parents drive their kids to rebellion? ii. Rebellious kids drive their parents to harshness? iii. In stressed out families both parents and kids are at worst? iv. Ornery families are genetically disposed to such behavior? v. Etc? Experimental Research I. Random assignment to groups a. Experiment group i. Hypothesized cause is manipulated PSYC 1315-005 Chapter 2 September 1, 2016 1. Independent variable II. Control Group a. Treated equally, except no manipulation III. Observe/measure and effect a. Difference between groups IV. Experiments are one of the few research designs that allow you to directly test why something happens, that is, to test for cause and effect. Validity I. External Validity a. Representative of real world issues? b. Do results generalize the real world? II. Internal Validity a. Are dependent variable changes the result of independent variable manipulation? b. Research Sample III. Population a. Entire group about whom conclusion is to be drawn IV. Sample a. Portion of the population actually observed V. Interpreting Data a. Statistics b. Mathematical methods used to report data VI. Descriptive a. Describe/summarize VII. Measures of Central Tendencies a. Mean b. Median (middle score) PSYC 1315-005 Chapter 3 September 6, 2016 Nervous System I. Complex II. Integrated III. Adaptable (plasticity) IV. Electrochemical transmission Divisions of the Nervous System I. Central Nervous System a. Brain and spinal cord II. Peripheral Nervous System a. Somatic Nervous System 1. Takes in information and spits out behavior ii. Sensory nerves iii. Motor nerves b. Autonomic Nervous System i. Sympathetic Nervous System 1. Aroused ii. Parasympathetic Nervous System 1. Calm Structure of the Nervous System I. Neurons a. Messages travel from dendrite to cell body to axon II. Nerves a. Carry information III. Dendrite > Cell Body > Axon IV. Chemicals travel across the Synapse: the gap between the neurons V. Cell body sends out the action potential Neural Impulse I. Negative and Positive Charged Ions II. Polarization III. Resting Potential Neurotransmitters I. Inhibitory Sedating a. Acetylcholine i. Muscle actions, learning, memory ii. Black widow venom (high levels) iii. Botox (low levels) iv. Alzheimer’s Disease (low levels) b. GABA i. Anxiety (low levels) II. Excitatory a. Glutamate i. Learning and memory PSYC 1315-005 Chapter 3 September 6, 2016 ii. Involved in many psychological disorders b. Norepinephrine i. Stress and mania (high levels) ii. Depression (low levels) c. Dopamine i. Voluntary movement ii. Reward anticipation iii. Stimulant drugs (activate dopamine receptors) iv. Parkinson’s Disease (low levels) d. Serotonin i. Regulation of sleep, mood, attention and learning ii. Depression (low levels) iii. Prozac (high levels) e. Endorphins i. Natural opiates ii. Mediate feelings of pleasure and pain Neural Networks I. Interconnected pathways of new cells II. Integrate sensory input and motor output III. Develops across the years IV. Where a given piece of information is stored a. Not in a lone neuron or connection Brain Structure I. Hindbrain a. Brainstem i. Medulla 1. Controls breathing and regulates reflexes ii. Pons 1. Sleep and arousal b. Cerebellum i. Motor function and balance II. Forebrain a. Limbic System i. Memory and emotion 1. Amygdala a. Discrimination of objects needed for survival b. Emotion 2. Hippocampus a. Formation and recall memories 3. Thalamus a. Relay station for much sensory Information 4. Basal Ganglia a. Coordination of voluntary movements 5. Hypothalamus PSYC 1315-005 Chapter 3 September 6, 2016 a. Eating, drinking, sexual behaviors b. Regulate body’s internal state c. Emotion, stress, reward III. Cerebral Cortex a. Lobes i. Occipital 1. Vison ii. Temporal 1. Hearing, language processing, and memory iii. Frontal 1. Intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles iv. Parietal 1. Spatial location, attention, motor control b. Somatosensory Cortex i. Body sensations c. Motor Cortex i. Voluntary movements ii. Point-to-point mapping IV. Corpus Callosum: a bundle of nerves that connects the two hemispheres of the brain V. Hemispheres a. Left i. Verbal processing and speech, grammar ii. Broca’s area 1. Takes the motor strip and interprets it into language iii. Wernicke’s area 1. Takes the sensory strip and interprets it into language b. Right i. Spatial perception PSYC 1315 Chapter 4 September 13, 2016 Basic Principles I. Sensation: conversion of physical energy in the neural process a. Bottom-Up Processing i. Initiated by sensory input b. Top-Down Processing i. Initiated by cognitive processing II. Perception: The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information a. Bottom-Up Processing i. Outside world’s influence on perception b. Top-Down Processing i. Internal/mental world’s influence on perception ii. Expectations and prior understanding c. Dimensions i. Shape ii. Depth iii. Motion iv. Constancy d. Gestalt Psychology i. Perception are naturally organized according to certain patterns ii. Whole is different from the sun of the parts iii. Principles 1. Figure-Ground relationship a. Two figures together, and debating which one we see and then the second shape 2. Closure a. Applying a whole triangle vs. a line that looks like a triangle with a gap 3. Proximity a. Grouping things together 4. Similarity a. How much two shapes look alike e. Depth i. Monocular cues 1. Familiar size 2. Shading 3. Linear perspective 4. Texture gradients ii. Binocular cues 1. Disparity a. Convergence f. Motion i. Humans have specialized motion detectors ii. Constancy PSYC 1315 Chapter 4 September 13, 2016 1. Objects do not physically change despite changes in vantage point and viewing conditions 2. Sensory information changes, but perceptual interpretation does not Sensory Receptors I. Specialize cells that selectively detect and transmit sensory information to the brain II. Cells send signals via distinct neural pathways III. Vision, Hearing, Touch, Smell and Taste Sensory Thresholds I. Absolute: the minimal amount of energy an organism can detect 50% of the time II. Noise: Irrelevant and competing stimuli III. Difference: how much the stimuli change is necessary for detection, on the absolute amount of energy a. Just Noticeable Difference (JND) increases with stimulus magnitude b. Weber’s Law i. To be perceived as different, two stimuli differ by a constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount) Properties of Life I. Wavelength: distance between peaks a. Perceived as hue b. Some are beyond human sensation c. How slow vs. fast II. Amplitude: height of a wave a. Perceived as brightness b. How big III. Purity: mixture of wavelengths a. Perceived as Saturation Photo-Receptor Cells I. Rods a. Sensitive to even dim light, but not color b. Function well in low illumination c. Humans have about 120 million rods II. Cones a. Respond to color b. Operate best under high illumination c. Humans have about 6 million cones Opponent Process Theory I. Complementary color pairs PSYC 1315 Chapter 4 September 13, 2016 a. Red against green b. Yellow against blue Hearing I. Saturation: the quality of the sound II. Properties a. Wavelength i. Pitch b. Amplitude i. How big c. Mixture of wavelengths III. Auditory Processing a. Pathway of Auditory Information i. Cochlea to the Auditory Nerve to the Brain Stem to the Temporal Lobe b. Localizing sound i. Intensity 1. Distance a. Sound Shadow ii. Timing PSYC 1315 Chapter 5 September 15, 2016 The Nature of Consciousness I. Consciousness: Consists of arousal and awareness a. Arousal: ways that awareness is regulated (alert vs. relaxed) b. Awareness: of external events and internal sensations which occurs under conditions of i. Reticular activating system ii. Prefrontal cortex iii. Anterior Cingulate iv. Association areas c. Theory of Mind i. False belief task 1. Social competence ii. Theory of Mind Module 1. TOMM iii. Individuals with autism 1. Lack TOMM iv. Automatic emotional reaction 1. Empathetic 2. Reasoning used after the fact to justify moral decision v. Concious Reflection 1. Utilitarian
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