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SMAD 101: Study guide Test 1

by: Gab Calderon

SMAD 101: Study guide Test 1 SMAD 101

Gab Calderon

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Study guide for chapter 1! Hope this helps!
Smad 101: Intro to Media Arts
Roger Soenksen, George Johnson
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study, guide, test1, SMAD101
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gab Calderon on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by Roger Soenksen, George Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 243 views. For similar materials see Smad 101: Intro to Media Arts in Media Arts and Design at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
SMAD STUDY GUIDE: Random vocab: Medium- (singular) channel where a message travels from the source to the receiver. Media- plural form of medium Mass media are the channels used for mass communication Mass vehicle- single component like a newspaper, tv, magazine. Mass communication- organization uses machines to transmit public messages aimed at large audiences. Metamorphosis- how the communication of media has change overtime Linear- Sender  Channel (voice, phone)  Receiver Noise- problems can occur like distractions, ppl speak diff languages (sematic) Interactional- Sender  receiver  feedback Fields of experience- add cultural background Transactional- Sender/receiver   receiver/sender Simultaneously s and r Mass Media: 1. Technology- internet is a big part of m. comm. And it brings down the cost of m. comm. 2. Economics- financial challenges for those companies who didn’t join digital era 3. Social trends- receive information online for free. Cd’s plummeted and FB and Twitter skyrocketed. Characterizations of Media Organizations: 1. Formal organization structure produces M.C- You need structure like decision makers, division of labor and areas of responsibility. Although this is true websites can be produced by one single person or small group. 2. Gatekeepers: person or group has control over what material reaches the public. Less G.K on the web but they do allow audiences to be the G.K cause there’s links to report stuff. (editors) 3. Large operating expenses- fb and twitter pay investors to keep the websites growing. 4. Competition for profits- want to attract an audience (ratings for tv shows) Role of media in the society: 1. Agricultural movements- media was small (farming) 8,000 BC-Present  Key commodity/basic resource: food and land  Employment: fam and trade  Nature of mass comm. : one way print  Technology: agricultural tools  Worked dawn to dusk and always looked at how many things they produce 2. Industrial movements- factories 1750-present  Key commodity: manufactured goods and energy  Employment: factory workers  Nature of mass comm. : one way print and electronic media  Technology: steam engine, assembly line  7am-7pm machines count for you and there is leisure time so they filled that time up with media  More literacy because they know how to use the machine so print media increased  People were brought closer together 3. Informational age- modernism 1955-present  Key commodity- information and knowledge  Employment- information workers  Technology- computer and networks  Mass. Comm. – interactive media  Utopia- wanted a perfect place  After modernism then post-modernism- more opportunities, channels and newspapers  Globalization- united states wanted to be isolated so everyone has to talk to each other cause WW2 (pearl Harbor) U.S Started seeing different civilizations Characteristic of Information society:  Information materialism- information as commodity  Interconnectedness among individuals and institutions  Special status of scientific knowledge  Many messages and channels (social media)  Widely diffused information technology  U.S IS AN INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY U.S Work force: Agricultural ↓ Industrial ↓ Service (small increase) ↗ Information ↑ 3 types of media: 1. Mass media-  Point to multi-point message distribution  Message for the masses  Uses mediated channels  Message controlled by the sender (newspaper, radio, tv, film) 2. Personal media:  Point to multi-point (to a bunch of people), interpersonal (specific person) and intrapersonal (diary, talk to self)  Uses technology to personalize  User has more control. (cd played, vcr, laptop, camcorders) 3. Telecommunications media:  Interpersonal and point to multi-point message distribution  Mediated by technology  Telephones, email, beeper, fax, etc. Implications of living in an info society:  Communications infrastructure is as important as railroads, highways, electric lines  Dynamic environment- great deal of change and little predictability  Half-life of knowledge is getting shorter  Information gathering and disseminating a critical part of your life  Globalization is a fact not a fad  Must be proficient in the process (design) and not the tools  Own your career, not your jobs (jobs change constantly)  Be careful of technological determinism (technology is essential) Principals of Mass Media: 1. Coevolution and coexistence- Evolve at the same time and influences each other (telegraph & fax…) 2. Metamorphosis- new media emerge gradually from other media (t.v evolve out of radio) 3. Propagation- new media propagate dominant traits from earlier forms… Rear view mirror thinking (reflect on the past) (twitter is like telegram) (limit number of words on twitter) 4. Survival- all form of media are compelled to evolve and adapt (needs money off what im doing) 5. Opportunity and need- a new media are not adopted on technological merits alone (google their ads due to what people look up) 6. Delayed adoption- take longer than expected to become commercial successes (new product, how soon do we use it in our lives) but take longer to get into society than expected. Convergence of media- integration of media into a common technological base Diffusion of innovations- process where an innovation spreads in a social system (cars with new radios in them) Convergence: Telecommunication industries (phone) Computer industries (computer) Digital convergence: All media going digital. Networks are integrating, institutions are converging and increasing access to information. 1. Corporate digital convergence is one firm invocating from another. (google bought YouTube) 2. Operational convergence- digital can do many tasks like a remote control 3. Device convergence- buy printer then fax machine then scanner but now there is an all in one Factors leading to digital convergence: 1. Interactive- allow one to one interaction between individuals or between individual and content 2. Demassifed- exchange information with individuals information is personalized 3. Asynchronous (email) - capacity to interact with an individual at the time convenient for that person. (recording something on DVR for later) 4. Convenience- information can be converted manipulated and reached more easily. One step service (excel) 3 types of convergence- 1. Device/technological- remote control changes volume 2. Corporate/economic- one company buys another…. Media organization changes 3. Organizational/cultural- certain apps to talk to each other (attitude/value changes) 2 types of innovations: 1. Sustaining- improve of something that existed (typewriter became electric) 2. Disruptive- wipe out (word press changed to computers and replace typewriters) Diffusion of innovations:  Paul saffo- 30 years to get the new idea across the world st a. 1 decade is excitement b. 2 nddecade is people start using it c. 3 decade technology is taken for granted  Roger 5 critical attributes of successful diffusion Needs an advantage (processor-no paper) a. Compatibility b. Complexity c. Observability d. Reliability  Filder 6th principal- familiarity- a link to a past  Steven Johnson (10/10 rule- 10 years to make and 10 years to market) Digital native- (ME) immersed into the digital age since birth Digital Immigrants- (SMAD TEACHERS) slowly fazed into the digital culture. Past 3 decades Stages of diffusion: Awareness  interest  decision (need)  trial  adoption Factors Affecting Diffusion-  Economic- How much income they have available to buy things (meet needs of company), purchase power of market  Technological- compatible with other technologies Technological infrastructure  Social- acceptance Need  Regulation- governmental support (regulatory agencies Trade support Innovators- wait outside apple store for hours Early adaptors- wait a little to get iPhone Late adopters- late to tech Laggards- don’t need technology Take off- early adopters start to gain numbers (increase fast) Adaptation curve: TAKE % OF OFF TIME Analog- the way you hear  Continuous variation  All information is transmitted (including noise) Digital- take samples  Translate waves into series of 1’s and 0’s Digital advantages:  Less noise  Easier to manipulate  Compressible (can be put on 1 CD)  Intelligent channels (thermostat; can change)  Integrated networks (phone commercials; data; voice) Implications of digital Language: - Marshall Mcluhan’s global village  Immediate transfer of information  Globe now smaller and more reachable  Common experiences defined by media  Due to information getting accessible fast makes world small - Increased speed, reach, and understanding  Compressed messages sent quicker  Virtual reality could enhance immediacy of understanding - Protecting intellectual property  To copy and disseminate information  Rewarded for those - The mass gets segmented and fragments Communication process and theory: Types of communication: 1. Intrapersonal- communicate with self (diary) 2. Interpersonal- face to face communication 3. Mass communication- point to multi-point Functions of mass communication: 1. Surveillance- providing newsworthy information (tv, news, weather) look if it is raining 2. Correlation- interpret information and act on that or editorialize it (write newspaper column) 3. Transmission of culture- binding people across time and distance by educating about values and social norms (share common experience at movie theater) 4. Entertainment- entertaining people without necessarily offering any other functional value Linear communication model (straight line)  Sender  receiver  Hardold Laswell- says what to whom through which channel with what effect  Shannon weaver- linear model a. Transmitter (what stories to cover) b. Message c. Medium (device to send this message) d. Receiver  Field of experience- how we receiver/how we send information  Noise- disturbance (weather, satellite signal lost)  Feedback- response to sender Westley and maclean - gatekeeper model X=event a=individual b=audience f=feedback C=editor/gatekeeper x^n = message x^ll = Timebound=radio/t.v (cant say this is the model (REALLY CLOSE to one everything) shown in class) Spacebound=newspaper (cant say Uses and gratification theory:  What do people get out of the media?  We use the media in certain ways so we gratifying some sort of need  Alan tans typology of needs: A. Cognitive needs- conscience need (use for own purposes) B. Affective needs- result form an emotion C. Personal integrative needs- learn something from a bank D. Social integrative needs- want to fit in group E. Escapist needs- do something to escape something else Expectancy-value theory:  This also wants to satisfy my needs  Seek media based on expectations  Media has value when it meets expectations  We alter our future expectations of media depending on whether they meet our needs Play and entertainment theory:  We do things to give us pleasure  We seek to replicate pleasurable experiences through media  Pleasure determined by consumer, not inherent in message or intention of communicator  One person’s pleasure is another’s pain  Focus on receiver not transmitter Dependency theory: RECEIVER  Some people become dependent on things (cellphones)  Dependency is a 3-way interaction among media, audiences and society  Variations in 2 variables are important a. Social stability- economic means (good economy) b. # and centrality of information functions served  3 types of effects a. Cognitive (awareness of the dependent) b. Affective (emotional; act on it) c. Behavioral (what action does based on information we get) Hegemony: TRANSMITTER  Antonio Gramsci  If you have power over media you can enhance the power you have  Police & military  Education  Religion  Media outlets Agenda setting: TRANSMITTER  mcCombs and Shaw  use media to satisfy agenda  media doesn’t tell us what to think but what to think about  agendas are developed from the priorities of the media, public and public- makers Spiral of silence: TRANSMITTER  DESIRE TO FIT IN  NOELLE-Neuman  Sollomen Asch- experiment, had 3 lies and asked which of the lines was a different length. (there was an obvious answer) 9 people lied and the last person followed them although they were clearly wrong. Information gap hypothesis: TRANSMITTER  If you have access to information you are perceived to have more power  Growing gap between information rich and information poor. a. Level of education b. Available resources such as computers , internet and media access Orsen Wells- Name of the guy who was a radio host that made a huge commotion Active Audience:  Selective exposure  Selective attention (superbowl)  Selective perception (perceived message like someone smokes and there is a commercial about how smoking is bad)  Selective retention or recall (obtain)  Selective behavior of social categories Diffusion of information (politics):  Personal and interpersonal influences  Media effects can be indirect a. 2-step flow- opinion leaders (big people like teacher… other people value the opinion leader so then pass on the information they heard) b. Multi-stop flow- sub opinion leader (pass, pass, pass, along information)  Especially applicable to political process Crystallization- If person hasn’t formulated about what you are on so you hear from the opinion leader then say “I believe in that now” Reinforcement- if you picked a side then you search for anything from opinion leader that have the same side as you or reinforce your attitude Social learning component of media Theory:  Albert bandura: BoBo Doll Experiement. T.v showed adult punch the BoBo doll then the kid did the same thing. People establish goal that entail rewards or positive consequences  People choose behaviors that have the potential to achieve the goals  People interpret the consequences of behavior as rewards or punishments  Watching violence on the media may and my encourage it  Choices are affected by the perceived success and failure of the past Social learning and media:  Behaviors, rewards justify our actions on media  Mediated behaviors are influential when people don’t have experience with those behaviors  Mediated behaviors are only influential when we retain, accept and imitate the behaviors  See it/influence/do it Social cognitive theory:  Media can teach us to model behaviors, values, beliefs  Sometimes media teaches but other adopters motivate us to behave  Media is more influential when other adopters are absent  Basically do you understand that media isn’t reality? Cultivation theory:  A stalagmite theory (comes from bottom/longtime)  Popular media, tv shapes or cultivates view of social reality  Tv dominant storyteller  Resonates- heavy tv viewers. What they see resonate with the real world  Stories are relatively uniform in values and images  Main streaming- influences of media diminish or increase over time IMPORTANT THING TO KNOW ABOUT THE VIDEO SHOWN IN CLASS:  MEAN-WORLD SYNDROM- violence media related media makes the world seem more violent than it actually is to viewers. Causes more people to be fearful.  HAPPY VIOLENCE- most violence is happy violence. Its entertainment like uses humor to make it better.  WHY IS VIOLENCE POPULAR? Cultivation theory:  Stories provide a view of reality quite different from what people actually experience.  Cultivation differential- difference between these who watch heavy and light viewers of media and how they view reality.  VIOLENCE IS EASY TO SHOW. Humor is hard because cultures are different. Socialization theories:  Another stalagmite theories  Advertising and childrens buying behavior  Political socialization  Homogenization of socialization stages A. Children are exposed to same messages as adults B. Lewinsky scandal and discussion of “sexual acts on 6 o’clock news C. Same message to everyone no matter the age Priming effects (theory) immediate  Expose to stimuli and short term effect  When we see violent or sexual stimuli  Prosocial effect- act on message you see good thing (example of the breast tests taken after show showed It) Why violence?  Give the people what they want  It is less expensive (less $ to just pull out gun)  It translate easily to other cultures Effects of media violence:  Cartharsis (emotional cleanse)  Disinhibition- Ex: wife died and he says “I guess that means we are divorced”  Imitation-imitate  Desensitization- ex: cowboy shows (no blood)  Overall, violent media contributes to aggressive behavior. Sexually explicit media:  Main concern is access to sexual material  5 classes of sexual material 1. Sexually violent material- rape scene and to show women mostly victims 2. Non violent but degrading materials 3. Non-violent and non-degrading materials (educational research information and get access on it) 4. Nudity- not necessarily violent 5. Child pornography Effects of viewing S.E.M:  Cognitive effect a. If someone does sex then everyone does it b. Disinhibition (change in moral values and perception of mormalcy)  1970 commission on obscenity- no cause and effect relationship to the conception of pornography and violence in society. Made it legal for porn because no link  1986 messe commission- 4 cities and concluded violent hard core porn leads to criminal behavior Representation of women in minorities  Gender- women more than 50% of population but underrepresented in media  Media representation are influential in children as they are developing their attitudes about sex roles  Stereotype: homemaker, superwomen  Gender- 1950 traditional role model housewife with food on the table a. 1960 Helen Gurley Brown (wrote sex in “Single Girl”) she said girls can do what they want  Racial: Improving but still not good. Multicultural Cinderella. NAACP (colored people) says there is a lack of diversity. Minorities are under-represented or stereotyped: Latino: El Misisipi (print) 1 Latino paper in U.S. Talk about Mexico or Columbia Black American Media: Frederick Douglas was a slave and he read, wrote and ran away from plantation owner. Newspaper was northern star… Hattie McDanical was first black actress to win Academy Award in 1939. Sidney poiter was first black man to win academy award in 1963. Bill Cosby was first black man to lead a t.v program. Halle Berry was the first black female to win an Oscar in 2002. Gay and Lesbian: Increased after 1969 stone wall riots In NYC- over 100 new publications evolved. David Goodstein approach was people should try to fit in. Chapter 1: Encode- (putting an idea into something) an activity that a source goes through to translate thoughts and ideas into a form that may be perceived by the senses. (Speaker encodes thoughts into words) Message- actual physical product that the source encodes. (When you speak, or write) Channels-the ways the message travels to the receiver. (Sound waves, light waves) Decoding- (what you think they are putting into the idea) activities that translate or interpret physical messages into a form that has eventual meaning for a receiver. (Reading and playing the radio simultaneously) Receiver- target of message/goal. Feedback- the receiver’s responses. Noise- anything that interferes with the delivery of the message. Linear- one way phenomenon. This involves a sender (initiator and encoder) who sends a message (stimulus that produces meaning) through a channel (medium through which a message travels, such as oral or written) to a receiver (decoder of a message) in an atmosphere of noise (interference with effect transmission and reception of a message). This like a president’s speech. Channel choice affects things. Semantic noise- different ppl have different meaning for the word (soda/pop) Mechanical noise- problem with a machine that is being used to assist with communication. (static radio) Environmental noise- talking to somebody who is drumming their fingers on the table. Interactive- ping pong view. Includes feedback. Fields of experience are our cultural background, ethnicity, geographic location, extent of travel, and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of a lifetime. Transactional- assumes that people are connected through communication, they engage in a transaction. Both people are senders and receivers. Interpersonal communication- 1 person or group is interacting with another without a mechanical device (talks, participate in class) Mass communication- complex organization with the aid of one or more machines produces and transmits public messages that are directed at large audiences. Heterogeneous- dissimilar groups… differ in age intelligence, political beliefs, ethnic backgrounds etc. (mass communication is heterogeneous) MEDIUM SINGULAR and MEDIA PLURAL Mass Media- channels used for mass communication. (People, polices, organizations and technologies that go into producing and distributing mass communication. Media Vehicle- single component of the mass media like newspaper, radio station TV network or magazine. Gatekeepers- person or group who has control over what material eventually reaches the public. (Editor of newspaper, news director) CHAPTER 2: Macro analysis- sociological perspective that considers the functions performed by a system (like mass media for the entire society. Micro analysis- sociological perspective that considers the functions performed by a system (like mass media for an individual. Dysfunctions- harmful or negative consequences from the P.O.V of the welfare of the society. Functions of Mass Comm. For society: 1. Surveillance: news and information role of the media.  Beware surveillance- warning occurs when media informs us about threats from terrorism, hurricanes or volcanos, increasing infraction or military attack.  Instrumental surveillance- transmission of information that is useful and helpful in everyday life.  Credibility- trust in the media like who do we believe the most 2. Interpretation:  Gatekeepers pick what’s most great to put on the news  Editorial pages in newspapers (opinions)  Opinions aren’t accurate  People don’t think for themselves. They let people’s opinions be their own 3. Linkage- the ability of the mass media to join different elements of society that are not directly connected by interpersonal channels.  Examples: telethons, raise money for people with diseases, geographically separated groups that share a common interest are joined by the media (ebay and craigslist, fb)  Examples: hate sites, terrorists, spread propaganda 4. Transmission of values/socialization-  Socialization- the ways an individual comes to adopt the behavior and values of a group  Example- a mother I used as a peaceful person and loving in all commercials. 5. Mass media and socialization-  Media instils values and behaviors in us (audience) 6. Tv and socialization-  Tv channels are violent which effects heavy waters of tv 7. Entertainment-  Americans have more leisure time 9music,internet, tv)  Instead of doing activity you watch it and that’s a problem. How people use mass media: Uses and gratifications model- audience members have certain needs or drives that are satisfied by using both non-media and media sources. 1. Cognition- the act of coming to know something 2. Diversion- a. Stimulation- seeking relief from boredom b. Relaxation- escape from pressure/problems c. Emotional- release of pent-up emotions/energy 3. Social utility- Social needs to strengthen our ties with friends and people. Social utility is used as conversational currency which is when you discuss a movie or song. Para social relationship- develop feelings/friendships with media characters. 4. Affiliation- a persons desire to feel a sense of belonging or involvement within a social group 5. Expression- express thoughts, opinions or share photos and videos 6. Withdrawal- people use media to not communicate with others (like not wanting someone to sit next to you on the bus so you go on the phone) 7. Content and context- social context within which the media exposure occurs that determines audience usage Key Concept in Critical Approach: 1. Text- object of analysis. They can be films/ads or doll/video games 2. Meaning- interpretations that audiences take away with them from the text 3. Ideology- specific set of ideas or beliefs regarding social and political subjects 4. Gegmony- dominance of one entity over another CHAPTER 18: Effects of investigating Mass communication:  Critical and cultural analysis focus on the various meanings that audience members construct from specific texts.  Survey- large group answers questions  Panel study- specific survey, enables researchers to collect data from the same people at two or more points in time. (Takes long)  Experiment- manipulation of a single factor to determine its impact on another factor.  Field experiment0 is conducted in real life and helps establish causality Effects of M.C on knowledge and Attitudes: 1) Media and Socialization-  Socialization is the ways an individual come to adopt the behaviors and values of a group.  Agencies of socialization- various people or organizations that contribute to the socialization of an individual. (Mass Media, parents, school, friends, siblings, personal experiences)  Media is an important source of information like politics and social affairs.  TV- information for everything like children  Stereotypes- T.V shows things to kids that arent accurate. Crime on TV has 90% solving rate but that’s not true.  Gender roles- females are loving and males work a lot. 2) Cultivation Analysis-  Heavy TV viewing cultivates perceptions of reality consistent with the view of the world on TV  Methodology- TV portrays nothing about how the real world is like. Also involves what viewers absorb from heavy exposure to TV.  Problems- its difficult to determine cause & effect. People differ in ways other than their TV viewing habits. Technical decisions like wording of questions.  Mainstreaming- differences due to cultural and social factors tend to diminish among heavy T.V viewers.  Resonance respondent’s real life experiences are congruent with those of the TV World. 3) Agenda Setting-  Media has the ability to choose and emphasize certain topics. Thereby causing the public to perceive these issues as important.  A.S usually happens during campaigns because its designed to set agendas (emphasizing the issue) and these campaigns have clear cut beginning and end.  Framing- general way a new topic is treated by the media. Media tells us what and how to think.  Agenda building- how the media build their agenda of new worthy items.


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