Hist 172 Study Guide #1
Hist 172 Study Guide #1 Hist 172
Long Beach State
Popular in Early United States History
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephania State on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 172 at California State University Long Beach taught by Jeffrey Lawler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Early United States History in History at California State University Long Beach.
Reviews for Hist 172 Study Guide #1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/16
9/13/16 The Pequot War 1633 smallpox epidemic few effects on Narragansetts & Pequots Narragansetts dominated because terrritory was rich source of quahogs and whelks (from which Wampum was made) Dutch wanted Wampum Pequots tried to shatter trade alliance but failed Became one of major steps to Pequot War Sassacus (Pequot) losing power 1636 Narragansetts most powerful bc Pequots precarious John Oldham found murdered Narragansetts prime suspects they turned against Pequots they didn’t want to be alienated by English settlements Pequots sought to establish an alliance with Narragansetts against the English “strangers… they would overthrow us” Bay Colony forced Narragansetts to sign treaty against the Pequots Pequots hit English outposts Massachusetts tried to cement unstable alliance with Narragansetts Narragansetts and English attacked Pequot’s Mystic River Pequots split, some joined Mohawks (English destroyed them) Eng destruction of Pequots reshaped N.A. settlements around them on Long Island Sound Eng destroyed major barrier to their expansion into Connecticut and Long Island Sound, gained reputation, and greatest power in New England Conflicts between Mohegans and Narragansetts Roger Williams met with Narragansetts Canonicus and Miantonomi to warn them English seeking to be greatest power in the region Conflict between Mohegans and Narragansetts over the spoils of war (PequotWar) Uncas a Mohegan Uncas swore allegiance to all English colonies Ninigret a Niantic, close to Narragansetts Connecticut summoned Miantonomi to sign new treaty Connecticut had two goals: ensure security reduce influence of Massachusetts Bay Pequots resurrected to become Stonington Pequots and Mashantucket Pequots Sept 1654 United Colonies declared all Pequot remnants under their protection Eng denying hunting rights to Narragansetts increased in the tribe’s growing resentment Cold War with the Narragansetts With Massachusetts and Connecticut Colonists believed Miantonomi forging hostile alliance with Mohawks who they feared, Niantic Ninigret, too Gov of Massachusetts and Miantonomi didn’t reach agreement tension growing rapidly Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Haven joined to “League of Friendship”, creating the United Colonies Rhode Island was not invited Mohegans attacked by Wongunks Miantonomi captured in Boston and executed by Uncas Pessicus Narragansett Narragansetts didn’t blame Eng for Miantonomi’s death, instead the Mohegans Boston conference among the 3 tribes settled nothing among the 3 tribes Narragansetts and Uncas conflict on the river Eng still believed Indians were conspiring against them Fears of United Colonies were magnified when Narragansetts and Rhode Island supported each other, signing a treaty Widening Conflict Quarrel involve now Dutch and Montauks Dutch “ingaged” many NA as allies to fight Eng 5 years later Eng declared war over the Netherlands over trade issues Puritans feared that Dutch merchants were selling guns to Indians Representatives from several colonies urged to attack Ninigret, Massachusetts commissioner vetoed the action Uncas saw the opening and offered to attack Ninigret for a price Oct 5 United Colonies decided to declare war on Ninigret he signed a treaty to pay tribute and surrender his Pequots tensions remained Narragansetts leadership much weaker at end of decade Atherton Deed of 1660 added to long list of Narragansett grievances against the English Sep 29 1660 three Narragansett sachems agreed to pay fine of 595 fathoms within 4 months if they didn’t they would lose remaining land Atherton Company to speculate in Narragansett land and undercut Rhode Island and Narragansett authority Tribe obtained formal recognition of sovereignty from KIng Charles II Struggles Over Land English brought cattle, which required more land (cows & pigs roamed everywhere and ate Indian corn) Colonists viewed sachems incorrectly as similar to their own magistrates Decline of fur trade after 1650 By 1660’s Eng population tension over land and other resources (and Pequot War) which led to King Philip’s War Metacom AKA King Philip Movement also created increasing problems among Indian communities Dealings over land were not just about who tended and benefitted from the land, but conflicts over political power and sovereignty were deeply embedded in the land transactions as well as the treaties land = sovereignty But sachems saying no to them taking their land perceived to colony as an alliance that didn’t surrender sovereignty... Edward Randolph listed several reasons for King Philip’s War Metacom had Mount Hope (very pleasant, fertile) never wanted to give it up Conflict intensified when Plymouth challenged the sovereignty of the sachem and the loyalty of his people CH2 King Philip and Plymouth Metacom Wampanoag sachem Plymouth colonists established town of Swansea near Metacom’s capital which he had not agreed with Rumors that he was negotiating with neighboring tribes and king’s agents against Plymouth Rumors that Narragansetts Metacom’s allies Plymouth made Metacom go to Taunton for a meeting he confessed he violated the 1662 agreement and to surrender his people’s firearms But at Mount Hope, 60 with guns Judging from subsequent events, Metacom was forging alliance against Plymouth Metacom met with Bay Colony’s leaders to complain about Plymouth’s violations of his sovereignty Massachusetts offered to mediate, and Plymouth accepted Powerful men from Massachusetts met in Patuxet The colonists closed ranks Sachem promised to pay 100 euros worth of land He also promised to go to Plymouth’s governor Saw this as to prevent Wampanoags to become allies with Rhode Island or appealing to the king allow colony to control all territory between Buzzard’s Bay and Massachusetts border This set the stage for the war Emerging Conflicts Massasoit Metacom’s father his tribe was allies with Mohegans 1652 Eng hostility to Narragansetts caused some leaders to join with Massasoit (Wampanoag) Questions of sovereignty & conflicts, diplomatic, & political connections could be avoided as long as Massasoit lived & colonies were focused on Narragansetts and Mohegans But after Massasoit died, these issues evolved into the war Massasoit’s death marked deterioration in tribe’s relation with Plymouth: rise of new leaders in the colony (this 2nd generation more likely to assert sovereignty without notifying the Wampanoags had to deal with Wamsutta, new sachem, he asked for a new name and Plymouth called him Alexander, and his brother Philip (Metacom) Relations between Wampanoags and Plymouth worsened bc events in England: General George Monck wanted to restore monarchy with Charles II the restoration endangered Plymouth because they never had a charter Ply’s founders had connections to the Parliament who executed Charles I in 1649 Alexander sold land to Rhode Island and Plymouth asked him not to deal with anyone but them. He didn’t listen and sold more. They called him over but he died on the way back home. Metacom coerced into signing a treaty that he would never sell land without consulting with Plymouth (he wasn’t aware) The Restoration unleashed a torrent of complaints against the Puritan leaders and endangered authority and existence of Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut King Charles II sent delegation to check on the colonies they focused king’s wrath on Massachusetts (other colonies viewed as sympathetic underdogs) Plymouth seemed to gain delegation’s sympathy, but nervous because they still had no charter colony was divided between those who sought or counter the delegation and those with passive obedience hoping for the king’s favor Metacom in Charge and Besieged Conflicts over uncertain borders Angered by attitudes of Plymouth authorities Feeling cornered at Mount Hope Tensions notably increased after Plymouth established settlement in Rehoboth north of Mount Hope Bay called Swansea those colonists were buying land closer and closer to Metacom’s Sowams Conflict from whether Metacom or Plymouth held that land, but different ways Indians and colonists held, managed, and used land Rumors sachem was conspiring with Dutch or French against Plymouth he denied it, blamed Ninigret, and offered to surrender his firearms to Eng to prove it swore “love and faithfulness” to the English (they returned his weapons) He and his warriors paraded through Swansea with their firearms displayed they told him to come to Taunton (angry Eng) He signed a treaty that said he’d been a subject rather than a sovereign, and agreed to surrender his men’s muskets (some of his warriors kept them) Plymouth was concerned about “squaw sachem” Awashonks of Saconnet that she sign a treaty and release her peoples’ firearms (she signed) Plymouth gained the support of the United Colonies he was forced to sign the treaty that made him subject to Plymouth Christian Indians On Martha’s Vineyard embracing the colonists’ religion some ignored Metacom’s authority Waban a Nipmuc Minister John Eliot gathering converts (Waban found it attractive) evolving Indian worldview Waban’s community became Natick Christianity offered answers to challenges of disease, technology, power of the Anglos Natick became Eliot’s showpiece and model for praying towns Eliot founded the first Nipmuc praying town at Hassanamisset By 1660s Eliot and Gookin formed 7 praying towns develop networks with other churches served to train Indians loyal to Eliot, church, and colonial authorities Christianity seen as an extension of colonial authority threatening Native land, sovereignty, and leadership Sassamon Murdered, Metacom Tried Sassamon parents earliest converts to Christianity (left him to be raised in Eng house) Metacom suspected Sassamon was committing fraud to gain land and scheming with colonists sent him away to live in a cabin Sassamon met Gov Josiah Winslow (Plymouth) to warn Metacom was creating alliances with other sachems to destroy Eng he feared Metacom would kill him Suspected Sassamon had been killed Metacom denied murdering him Others saw 3 Wampanoags kill Sassamon Sent 3 Wampanoags to be hanged Metacom noted that if he wanted Sassamon dead he would have been his right by custom; he didn’t need to cover it up this was the first English trial of IndianIndian murder Looming War Clouds Oftenpersonal nature of politics and frontier relationships, as well as the connection between those relationships and state policies, was highlighted by these hurried conferences Benjamin Church (home on Mount Hope Bay, close relations with them) Awashonks a sachem (she was “plotting a bloody design”) she should shelter herself under the English Hardly popular with the Saconnets (one tried to kill Church) Such negotiations were fruitless to prevent the larger war because Metacom and United Colonies couldn’t agree whether native leaders were sovereigns or subjects John Brown at Swansea wrote note to Gov Winslow he concluded that Metacom’s men were “in a posture of war” John Easton (gov of Rhode Island) arranged to meet Metacom at island in Narragansett Bay way to prevent the looming hostilities Metacom and his men charged Plymouth with criminal aggression Easton suggested arbitration they complained that this favored the colonists in the past (unfairly take native lands) Metacom listed his grievances: how his father kept other tribes from harming the small, weak party of pilgrims but his brother was still killed when disputes arose, the english believed Indians only when it suited them when a sachem sold land, the colonists always claimed more traders sold Indians rum and cheated them of land when they were drunk English set up who they chose as sachems English cattle and horses wandered into Native cornfields & destroyed crops Easton and his colleagues listened but, responded only by telling Indians that they shouldn’t fight the colonists who had become so many and so strong Wampanoags agreed in principle but insisted colonists must be as fair to them as Massasoit had been to the first helpless set of English Plymouth ignored Easton’s offer of mediation because of conflicts with Rhode Island Winslow sent message to Wampanoag sachem: their people surrender arms and asking Metacom to met with Plymouth council Sachem was willing to lay down arms and denying any hostile intentions Winslow contacted Massachusetts counterpart, John Leverett, warning of likely war and loyalty of the Nipmuc and Narragansett tribes Leverett decided send three delegates to mediate with Metacom Cap Thomas Savage, James Oliver, and Thomas Brattle they found headless bodies of 2 Plymouth men sign from Wampanoag warriors that war begun The War Begins Minister John Miles 3 villages, one close to Mount Hope Swansea 40 miles from Plymouth, these scattered families depended heavily on each other and good relations with Natives John Brown’s frantic letter to governor showed residents of Swansea & Rehoboth small parties of Indians → they said they were guarding, and the English were gon attack Wampanoags entered John Winslow’s (Plymouth guy) home & destroyed stuff, without any blood Swansea residents saw these actions as the start of attack (went further from Mount Hope) John Leverett warned him of events and that Nipmucs and Narragansetts (who thought were within the Bay Colony’s sphere of influence) that they might join Metacom (but Plymouth hoped to deal with the problem in few days Plymouth’s initial force arrived at Miles garrison John Easton recorded that first blood shed (William Salisbury and son John killed NA first) This encounter shows that neither Natives nor colonists were interest on fullscale war Relatives of the dead Wampanoag were obligated by custom to seek revenge or compensation for bloodshed Legend that Metacom was told he wouldn’t win the war unless Eng drew first blood: now they had That night at Miles garrison a sentry was shot by warriors using darkness Initial violence highlighted what would become key aspects of the terrible conflagration Initially, Indians happy to attack Eng parallel to the Stamp Act by destroying homes of Peter Oliver King Philip’s War erupted over sovereignty and power, but was also driven by deeply conflicting systems of landholding and land use Initial human bloodshed was shaped by: the demands of Native culture English settlement patterns, technologies that both shared and strange relationship between 2 peoples (fear and loathing to friendship) Benjamin Church wrote “on Lord’s day (when at church) they should rifle their houses, and from that time forward kill their cattle” Metacom fulfilled the pledge when he “permitted them to march out of Mount Hope” Thus, the Wampanoag warriors began their hostilities by destroying cattle and not by trying to kill the colonists The War Spreads Attack on Swansea a local raid, effort to carry out angry acts of sabotage Plymouth had for years got evidence that Metacom was assembling an alliance to wage war on them Other tribes contacted by Mass and Ply told the diplomats that they regarded this as an affair between Metacom and the English didn’t last War spread One factor was: immediate involvement by Massachusetts Bay Colony Gov John Leverett mustered two companies: 100 men led by Cap Daniel Henchman, and Cap Thomas Prentice (& a 3rd company) Eng forces in Swansea totaled 350, including some Indian allies Eng lacked training and a clear chain of command in this situation dangerous and embarrassing for colonials Metacom’s men take advantage of the bay and rivers to move around they knew the lay of the land Snipers near Mount Hope (as Eng crossed bridge Indians shot em) Small bands of Wampanoags made quick strikes at Rehoboth and Taunton On June 30 full colonial force sweep of Mount Hope (Major Thomas Savage) Metacom’s deserted village In first half of 17th century, tribal bonds that had given Massasoit authority over Wampanoag villages were eroded by epidemics waxing of Narragansett power & interruption of Eng By the time Metacom became sachem, the Wampanoag villages on Martha’s Vineyard were deciding their own conflicts and questioned his authority Weetamoo Pocasset sachem Attack led by Cornelius Dutch Comparing the Combatants Wampanoags seemed to face daunting odds against the Eng: colonies 10,000 men much better supplies used to command and control structure N.A. loosely knit confederation of villages NA shattering leadership structure In initial stages of the war NA had advantage: Mass and Connecticut distracted by other problems Mass faced restoration of King Charles & faced threats against economy Connec western areas claimed by powerful NY governor Edmund Andros 1664 commission challenged the legitimacy of Colonies Native men better trained & conditioned for war Trained from early age to hunt quiet & patient NA political & military organization emphasized independent decision making by band leaders Faced threat of burning crops Colonists knew grain mills & cattle were targets Most colonists farmers, few fighting experience Eng militia tradition: all able bodied men fight Each colony tried to pursue its own strategic and political needs in deciding how to pursue the war Based on European disciplined hierarchy Later in war, some officers like Benjamin Church adopted Native tactics (large force and widely separated) THE NATIVES USED GUERILLA WARFARE (SNEAKY), WHILE ENGLISH WALKED IN A LINE Town of Billerica to be “place of safety” each family to one minister’s home Colonists built forts to control territory and as a symbol of dominance, as they had a century before in Ireland why Thomas Savage decided to build Fort Leverett at Pocasset Forts could monitor more manageable routes of travel and communication as well as better sources of food and water Natives located their villages against strategic paths or rivers On Connec River near Springfield, now Fort Hill Natives learned to build huge structures (bulwarks) Eng and NA used mixture of weapons Colo had: muskets, pikes, and swords Natives had: muskets, bows and arrows, spears, knives, and clubs (primitive weapons) bow and arrow more dependent than musket in rain and could be reloaded and fired more quickly and quietly than gun Most of 17th century NA largely dependent on Dutch and Eng for powder and shot changing at the time of war NA knowledge of the land compensated for disadvantage in arms Wampanoags attacked Middleborough near village of Nemasket Tispaquin (the Black Sachem) Metacom’s brotherinlaw As with Taunton and Rehoboth, Middleborough remained abandoned during remainder of war Totoson leader of Mattapoissett (one of Metacom’s most trusted war leaders) English were terrorized, not knowing when or where would hit Hit and run attacks on cattle potent symbols of invaders because knew colonists were dependent on vulnerable possessions CH3 The War Widens Metacom been sought to establish alliances with other tribes in the region fighting seemed to have had little success Metacom and the ENglish knew that their fate in this conflict would depend on how many other Native groups fought with or against one side or the other Most Nipmucks took path of war against the English Most Wampanoags refused to assist Metacom Uncas and Mohegans joined colonial side, and weaker Pequots offered services to Connec Wabanakis along coastal New Hampshire and southern Maine raided outposts Native anger grew as Eng became more powerful and encroached on land and fishing Such colonists increasingly fearful that all Indians were openly or secretly allied to destroy them Narragansetts and Nipmucs At Worden Pond, 4 Narragansett sachems Pessacus, Ninigret, Quinnapin, and “old queen” Quaiapen met Eng envoys reassured Eng no warriors from their tribe had joined Metacom connection of the colonies to the king (NA were bound to no connections with each other) Hutchinson, Joseph Dudley, and Walt Winthrop Eng commissioners insisted tribe sign formal treaty and send hostages to Boston as guarantees Eng threatened to attack unless received guarantee of friendship they signed Conn noted tribe was neutral and shouldn’t be treated as enemies Nipmucs worrisome bc close relations with Wampanoags in their territory Mass new towns of Brookfield, Lancaster, and Worcester had no chief sachem scattered villages connected in culture Ephraim Curtis, land speculator, trader to obtain promises that tribe remain loyal to Eng Matoonas constable in Pakachoog Curtis reported to Massachusetts council that Nipmucs were “wavering” Miles away at same time, Matoonas and his Nipmucs attacked Mendon (a Nipmuc Christian village) and killed 4 Eng No evidence that this attack carried out in conjunction with Metacom Hutchinson helped gain the treaty with Narragansetts, he was assigned to lead a delegation with Cap Thomas Wheeler and Curtis as guide, and surrender of Matoonas Another village deserted, which indicated that Nipmucs were preparing for hostilities When delegates went to meeting place, it was empty Brookfield settlers convinced their Nipmuc neighbors persuaded Hutchinson to push on Around 200 Nipmuc warriors fired, shot Hutchinson Curtis and Henry rode to Marlborough for shelter, but ran into Nipmucs and were forced to return Muttawmp a Quabaug sachem (burned rest of town) Curtis managed to escape and told Cap Simon Willard about the siege On Aug 4 Willard’s force arrived and Nipmucs withdrew Metacom’s anger at losing sovereignty, power, and land is easy to understand: the Nipmucs hostility aren’t as clear their sachems told Curtis that they’d heard Eng killed a Nipmuc and intended to annihilate the tribe informed him that Black James, a Nipmuc Christian constable of Chabonagonkamug threatened that English would kill all who weren’t Christians In addition to these immediate threats, Nipmucs would’ve been increasingly angered by threat of Eng land purchases, growth of colonial population, and disruptive Massachusetts influence (thru NA Christian ministers) And the growth of Christians in their tribe (Sassamon who spread Eng influence) Efforts to convert Indians to Christianity was a clear THREAT to nonChristian groups and endangered tribal sovereignty, family, medicine, politics, society, and culture 1660 Massachusetts officials very interested in Nipmuc lands Daniel Gookin speculator looked for more land John Eliot and Gookin went in Nipmuc territory to install Christian Nipmuc teachers in villages The threat was territorial as well as political Nipmucs were uncomfortably wedged between growing Massachusetts, Connec, and Rhode Island Considering the changes and threats, Nipmucs must have been increasingly angered at Bay Colony’s intrusion and expansion Didn’t seem a dire, immediate threat Logical deduction is Metacom’s effort to gain allied found fertile ground, helped by rumors that colonists planned to attack the tribe Indian Allies for the English Nipmucs were divided Gookin could intervene for them within the Mass legal and political mayhem also had friends and relatives from other tribes Men in praying towns sought to join their Eng brothers against Metacom July 2, Gov Leverett authorized Gookin to raise company to serve at Mount Hope Christian Indians would become come of most important and dependable if controversial allies of the Eng during the war important strategically, bc these villages became Metacom’s allies Series of Christian Indian congregations around Plymouth and on Cape Cod developed by John Cotton, Richard Bourne, and Indian ministers and teachers, including John Sassamon Wampanoags on Martha’s Vineyard embraced Christianity By 1670s political and social gap between the Vineyard Indian communities and Metacom was quite wide, and largely ignored him when he tried to enforce authority Vineyard Indians not required by religion to support the Eng Settlers demanded that Thomas Mayhew owner and ruler of the island sent a squad to demand large Gay Head Aquinnah community in the other side of the island surrender their weapons the Eng minority on the Vineyard never again confronted the Indians Mohegan sachem Unca found alliance with Eng advantageous in Pequot War Uncas helped English Outbreak war between Metacom and Eng provided Uncas opportunity to end tensions with colonists and maneuver against Native adversaries Sachem met with James Fitch (local minister who worked with the tribe) swore his friendship while accusing Naragansetts of protecting Metacom’s women & child Mass authorities were still suspicious 2 weeks later demanded Unca surrender arms & men The Mohegan sachem sent many firearms to Boston as tokens of good faith Joined company of Mass men dispatched to pursue Metacom Niantics and Pequots pledged fidelity and good affection to Eng at outbreak of the war Their loyalty was surprising: Pequots because of their earlier war with Eng Niantics because of their connections to the Narragansetts Pequots had developed good relations with Connecticut, which allowed two bands from the tribe to reform reservations Niantics made their decision for diff reasons sachem Ninigret was ambitious, like his enemy Uncas: In 1638 he tried to force Montauks on Long Island to tributary status, backing off only when Connecticut threatened war He took part in Narragansett councils Following death Narragansett sachem Canonicus, he gradually gained power as Niantics and Narragansetts seemed to merge Year later the Eng accused him of trying to kill Uncas and failing to pay the tribute of the Narragansetts Saw that best for him & his people was neutrality Wampanoags and Nipmucs Unite After colonies gained treaty with Narragansetts on July 15, Mass ordered its troops to return to Taunton and join Plymouth’s units in effort to smash Metacom On July 19, combined forces entered Pocasset Mass withdrew 100 men under Cap Henchman Metacom again outfoxed the Eng: attack on Dartmouth had badly shaken Ply’s settlers Totoson’s attack on the town was to move soldiers away from the area Nipmuc forced to abandon 100 women and children, and sold into slavery drove more Natives into desperate opposition Men from Providence & Rehoboth & 50 Mohegans chasing the Wampanoags Uncas’s oldest son Oweneco Attacked tired warriors at Nipsachuck killing 23 & 4 of Metacom’s best leaders Wampanoags took refuge in a swamp Ply and Providence forced waited for Henchman’s men, and after Henchman arrived he paused, which gave Metacom Weetamoo, and their men a chance to get away Weetamoo seek refuge with Narragansetts and avoid war Wampanoags arrived at fort Menameset Eng lost the opportunity to end war quickly, and Metacom and the Nipmucs to join forces Colonists suspicious where their true loyalties lay (only Christian Indians truly enthusiastic about their support) During same period, Metacom gained warriors from Pocassets, & forged strong alliance with Nipmucs First NipmucWampanoag operation attack on Lancaster led by Monocco Eng shocked many suspected Christian Indians (including Pennacooks from Wamesit) had given important info to enemy & even joined the attack rumors of Metacom being near Stonington & Quabaug Eng increasingly suspicious that Narragansetts were secretly aiding Wampanoags news that Nar tribe was providing refuge for Wam women & children Colonists saw this as violation of July 15 treaty, while Narr trying to keep family members from being sold into slavery The War Spreads West Few direct connections between coastal Wamp and NA along the Connec River Yet both River Indians and Wabanakis would become involved in war River Indian involvement triggered by Eng land dealings (band of Sokokis aided Wabanaki allies against a Mohawk attack) fear of retaliation of Mohawks Iroquois attacked Sokoki village of Squakeag conflict didn’t immediately widen: because Iroquois and Pocumtucks initially sought peace John Pynchon a fur trader, merchant, and landlord who dominated Springfield negotiated with Pocumtucks for their homelands most in tribe unaware of transactions Establishment of Deerfield in 1673 on the site of the core Pocumtuck village was particularly disturbing After Metacom’s warriors escaped from Pocasset, colonists feared Wampanoags and Nipmucs might target their valley settlements Colonists’ fears caused them to create the situation they hoped to avoid: incident with Quabaug Nipmucs and Nonotuck weapons turned a neutral tribe into a firm enemy of the Eng & created an alliance among the River Indians against the colonists 1st attack on Sept 1 against Deerfield (one right on top of their village) Pocumtucks, Sokokis, and Nonotucks raided village next day killed 8 men farther north at Squakeag and destroyed a;; barns, cattle, houses Sokokis & Nipmucs led by Monoco and Sagamore Sam set deadly ambush at crossing of Sawmill Brook killed Beers and half his men and tortured survivors Major Robert Treat with 100 Connec men from Hartford evacuated Squakeag In meantime United Colonies decided gather a force of 500 men to guard west Mass Deerfield hit again Sept 12 Sept 18 Psumtucks and Nipmucs led by Muttawmp launched devastating attack at Muddy Brook 6 miles south of Deerfield as Lathrop was leaving for Hadley Next day Indians withdrew, allowing Moseley to return to site of battle and bury the Eng dead, including Lathrop The Battle of Bloody Brook, renamed (worst disaster to befall colonists during the war) Neighboring Agawams led by Wequogan had given the “firmest Assurance and Pledges of their Faithfulness and Friendship” to the Eng Eng fears increased when Pynchon’s mill & buildings were burned, although raiders were probably Nipmucs Several hundred of Metacom’s warriors arrived at Wequogan’s village and preparing to attack Springfield Constable Thomas Miller was killed and Lieutenant Thomas Cooper mortally wounded to gasp a warning before dying Indians then hit the town, but Springfield forces returned and Indians left Wequogan’s assurances of friendship weren’t deceitful William Hubbard contemporary historian thought that Agawams, despite having “stood in firmest interest of the English” was persuaded by their relatives to attack the colonists Although Eng had initially offered trafe against their old enemies the Mohawks, relations had soured the colonists took more land in dubious deals Eng demands that River Indians surrender weapons & hostages alarming, because would have left them helpless against the Mohawks, and because they knew Plymouth made the same demands to subjugate Metacom Arrival of Nipmuc warriors was also a catalyst River Indians’ deadly attacks badly shook the colonists’ confidence fears that no native could be trusted Mass fears directed towards two Native groups: Christian Indians and Narragansetts desperately trying to remain out of the war
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'