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Ohio - BIOS 1000 - Study Guide

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Ohio - BIOS 1000 - Study Guide

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background image BIOS 1000 
The Animal Kingdom 
Animal Diversity 
Exam 1
Level of Organization Cell must do everything an organism does: acquire food, move it through the call, turn  it into energy, build new material, reproduce, move, communicate Tissue muscle tissue- can contract to provide movement  epithelial tissue- faces the environment nerve tissue- transmits signals connective tissue- holds things together Organ An organism gets larger, these processes become more challenging. Organs and Organ Systems take on roles that used to be done within the cell. Organ System Organs and Organ Systems take on roles that used to be done within the cell. Individual Vs Colony What makes individual colony member (coral) different from a unitary individual  (humans) Produced by cloning of 'founder' individual creates genetically identical colony  members which may develop different functions as colony grows. Animal Symmetry Radial Symmetry Can be divided into similar halves by multiple planes through an axis Bilateral Symmetry Can be divided into similar halves by only one plane Only one plane produces a mirror image Classifying Animal Species Figure 2-12: Page 20: Evolution of life in relation to earth history and oxygen  availability
First pre-Cambrian Animals
Earliest fossils  Springgina Kyclomedusae Dickinsonia The Cambrian Explosion Burgess Shale Fauna (Canada) Fossils Burgess Shale Seascape Classification A goal of classification is to provide order to the enormous diversity of animals  forms. Science of  Systematics. Attempts to classify go back at least to Aristotle Carolas Linnaeus Devised hierarchical system of naming species, referring to as  Binomial 
background image NomenclatureGenus and Species
Genus name is unique to group
Species name may be used with other unrelated genera (often refers to a person  or place) System of classification  Species, Genus, Family, Order Kingdom animal, plant, bacteria Phylum defined by distinctive overall body plan such as Chordates or Mollusks Class major subdivision of Phylum Each division can be further subdivided if needed, depending if the number of  species in a group
The Phylum Loriciferan, with 8 species, does not need much subdivision 
compared to the insects, with 1,000,000 species Relationships Among Animals Evolutionary Tree (phylogeny) Can be found for all types of animal species The tree of life  Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes, Protista All Organisms started from the same point Sources of information come from comparative biology Comparative Anatomy Comparative Physiology Comparative Biochemistry Molecular Biology (molecular Genetics) Major subdivisions of the animal Kingdom Parazoa ('Near' Animals, include sponges) Eumetazoa ('True' Animals) Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry (most animals Ecology basics Ecology can be studied at many different levels Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Populations Population- A reproductively interactive group of animals of a single species  population and evolution  Two populations must be reproductively isolated from one another for a new species to  be created.
Example: Arizona "Sky Islands" 
Very tall mountains separated by desert Cool neat mountain top, hot at base During ice age, region as cool. As ice retreated, region warmed, and many species 
background image distribution moved higher up the mountain
Eventually, different populations became isolated by hot desert between mountains
Animal Organization Unitary- Genetically distinct individuals, its sexual reproduction Colonial- Colonies of genetically identical individuals. Reproduce primarily by cloning but have sexual stage at some point in life cycle. A clone is an exact genetic duplicate Why sexual reproduction? Promotes genetic variation Great in the long run Without genetic variation, the chances of adapting to environmental change is reduced Thus, species that reproduce asexually still have a sexual phase There at many variations on these two basic forms of reproduction Parthenogenesis Asexual (clonal) reproduction by females in absence of males Allows for rapid population growth - no need to find a mate Hermaphrodite Both male and female organs in one individual Seen in jellyfish, flatworms, snails, fish, and many other Simultaneous Animal has both male and female organs Flatworms, earthworms, many snails Sequential Animal alternate between male and female common in wrasses (type of saltwater fish) Sexual Parasites Male becomes parasitic on female Example: Anglerfish Tiny male bites, then fuses with female

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School: Ohio University
Department: Engineering
Course: Animal Diversity
Professor: Patrick Hassett
Term: Fall 2016
Name: BIO 1000 Exam 1
Description: Study guide for exam 1, Animal Diversity
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
12 Pages 130 Views 104 Unlocks
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