BIO 1000 Exam 1
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Patrick Hassett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 242 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
BIOS 1000 The Animal Kingdom Animal Diversity Exam 1 • Level of Organization ◦ Cell ‣ must do everything an organism does: acquire food, move it through the call, turn it into energy, build new material, reproduce, move, communicate ◦ Tissue ‣ muscle tissue- can contract to provide movement ‣ epithelial tissue- faces the environment ‣ nerve tissue- transmits signals ‣ connective tissue- holds things together ◦ Organ ‣ An organism gets larger, these processes become more challenging. ‣ Organs and Organ Systems take on roles that used to be done within the cell. ◦ Organ System ‣ Organs and Organ Systems take on roles that used to be done within the cell. ◦ Individual Vs Colony ‣ What makes individual colony member (coral) diﬀerent from a unitary individual (humans) • Produced by cloning of 'founder' individual creates genetically identical colony members which may develop diﬀerent functions as colony grows. • Animal Symmetry ◦ Radial Symmetry ‣ Can be divided into similar halves by multiple planes through an axis ◦ Bilateral Symmetry ‣ Can be divided into similar halves by only one plane ‣ Only one plane produces a mirror image • Classifying Animal Species ◦ Figure 2-12: Page 20: Evolution of life in relation to earth history and oxygen availability ◦ First pre-Cambrian Animals ‣ Earliest fossils • Springgina • Kyclomedusae • Dickinsonia ◦ The Cambrian Explosion ‣ Burgess Shale Fauna (Canada) ‣ Fossils ‣ Burgess Shale Seascape ◦ Classiﬁcation ‣ A goal of classiﬁcation is to provide order to the enormous diversity of animals forms. Science of Systematics. ‣ Attempts to classify go back at least to Aristotle ◦ Carolas Linnaeus ‣ Devised hierarchical system of naming species, referring to as Binomial Nomenclature: Genus and Species ‣ Genus name is unique to group ‣ Species name may be used with other unrelated genera (often refers to a person or place) ◦ System of classiﬁcation ‣ Species, Genus, Family, Order ‣ Kingdom • animal, plant, bacteria ‣ Phylum • deﬁned by distinctive overall body plan such as Chordates or Mollusks ‣ Class • major subdivision of Phylum ‣ Each division can be further subdivided if needed, depending if the number of species in a group ‣ The Phylum Loriciferan, with 8 species, does not need much subdivision compared to the insects, with 1,000,000 species ◦ Relationships Among Animals ‣ Evolutionary Tree (phylogeny) • Can be found for all types of animal species ‣ The tree of life • Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes, Protista ‣ All Organisms started from the same point ◦ Sources of information come from comparative biology ‣ Comparative Anatomy ‣ Comparative Physiology ‣ Comparative Biochemistry • Molecular Biology (molecular Genetics) ◦ Major subdivisions of the animal Kingdom ‣ Parazoa ('Near' Animals, include sponges) ‣ Eumetazoa ('True' Animals) • Radial symmetry • Bilateral symmetry (most animals • Ecology basics ◦ Ecology can be studied at many diﬀerent levels ‣ Organism ‣ Population ‣ Community ‣ Ecosystem ‣ Biosphere • Populations ◦ Population- A reproductively interactive group of animals of a single species ◦ population and evolution ‣ Two populations must be reproductively isolated from one another for a new species to be created. ‣ Example: Arizona "Sky Islands" • Very tall mountains separated by desert • Cool neat mountain top, hot at base • During ice age, region as cool. As ice retreated, region warmed, and many species distribution moved higher up the mountain • Eventually, diﬀerent populations became isolated by hot desert between mountains ◦ Animal Organization ‣ Unitary- Genetically distinct individuals, its sexual reproduction ‣ Colonial- Colonies of genetically identical individuals. Reproduce primarily by cloning, but have sexual stage at some point in life cycle. ‣ A clone is an exact genetic duplicate ◦ Why sexual reproduction? ‣ Promotes genetic variation • Great in the long run ‣ Without genetic variation, the chances of adapting to environmental change is reduced ‣ Thus, species that reproduce asexually still have a sexual phase ◦ There at many variations on these two basic forms of reproduction ◦ Parthenogenesis ‣ Asexual (clonal) reproduction by females in absence of males ‣ Allows for rapid population growth - no need to ﬁnd a mate ◦ Hermaphrodite ‣ Both male and female organs in one individual ‣ Seen in jellyﬁsh, ﬂatworms, snails, ﬁsh, and many other ◦ Simultaneous ‣ Animal has both male and female organs ‣ Flatworms, earthworms, many snails ◦ Sequential • Animal alternate between male and female • common in wrasses (type of saltwater ﬁsh) ◦ Sexual Parasites ‣ Male becomes parasitic on female ‣ Example: Anglerﬁsh • Tiny male bites, then fuses with female ◦ Population Growth ‣ Two basic strategies • (with many variations) ‣ Exponential growth- numbers increase more rapidly ‣ K- and r- selection • Describes two basic strategies for population growth • K- selection- Species tend to maintain maximum stable population level • r- selection- Species tend to maintain maximum growth rate • There are tradeoﬀs with either strategy (you can't design a perfect animal) • Community ◦ Communities ‣ Consists of the organisms that interact with each other within a deﬁned area ‣ Members of communities are determined mainly by competition and predation • Competition ◦ For space among barnacles • Predation ◦ Drives the design of the animals ◦ Food Web ‣ The terms "food web" and "food chain" describes 'who eats who' in a community ‣ Example: • Krill-simple for web • Phytoplankton --> krill --> whales/seals ‣ Energy is loss • At each step in a food chain engird is lost (feeding isn't 100% eﬃcient). So, short food chains tend to have much greater production at the top, the krill chain being a prime example. • Protozoa ‣ Plantae- multicellular, eukaryotic ‣ Animalia- multicellular, eukaryotic ‣ Fungi- multicellular, eukaryotic ‣ Protista- eukaryotic, unicellular, and multicellular ‣ Eubacteria- unicellular, prokaryotic ‣ Archaebacteria- unicellular, prokaryotic ◦ Kingdom Protista ‣ Protozoans • (amebas, ciliates) • Similar to animals, but unicellular ‣ Algae • (diatoms, red algae) • Similar to plants (photosynthesis) ‣ Differ from animals/plants/fungi most importantly in how they reproduce ◦ Algae: Diatoms • silica shell, photosynthetic ‣ Surf-zone diatoms • specialized algal community inhabits thin layer on surface of waves • foam provides surface for diatoms to grow ‣ Diatoms • can form long chains ◦ Brown Algae (kelp) ‣ Move by flowing extensions of the cytoplasm ‣ Amebas ◦ Ciliates ‣ Move by coordinated motion of many short hair-like structures ◦ Dinoflagellates ‣ Move by beating of one or two hair-like flagella ◦ Expansion of HAB problems in the US ‣ Mainly around the coasts • most people around the coasts ‣ Pollution and human waste is fertilizing the problem ◦ Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins ‣ Saxitoxin is one of about 12 different toxins in Alexandrium ‣ Toxins act on nervous system, are water-soluble so will be flushed out of the body ‣ Diary of Alaskan settler from 1900 recorded the frequent "tingly" sensation of the tongue after eating mussels ◦ Bioaccumulation ‣ Occurs when consumers is either unaffected by toxin, or impaired and preyed upon • Ex: Toxic algae ---> mussels (unaffected) ---> human • Ex: Toxic algae ---> copepods (unaffected) ---> small fish (impaired) ---> larger fish (killed) ◦ Ciguatera ‣ Found in tropical waters ‣ Caused by dinoflagellate ‣ Toxins accumulate in top predators (such as barracuda) ◦ Cyanobacteria blooms also can produce PSP toxins ‣ Occur when nitrogen in limiting • Cyanobacteria use nitrogen gas ‣ More common in freshwater ‣ Blooms occur in western, shallow parts of Lake Erie ◦ Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning ASP ‣ Can produce lesions in brain and cause permanent short term memory loss ◦ Brown Tide ‣ First appeared in 1985 in Long Island, NY ‣ Caused by small, open ocean species ‣ Not harmful to humans, but destroys selfish populations • The path to animals ◦ Key its that some protozoan can form colonies, groups of individuals that remain connected ◦ Some individuals become specialized depending on where they are in the colony • Choanoflagellates ◦ Stalked colony ◦ Individuals embedded in gentinous mass ◦ (Note body) • Angel Chains ◦ Algal cells can remain attached and form long chains ◦ Feature that distinguished colony from simple chain of cells is specialization ◦ Some cells in colony can specialize for particular task • Hypothetical metazoan • Trichoplax ◦ Discovered in 1880's on the glass walls of an aquarium, little is know about them ◦ They are early seen in their natural habitat ◦ Contain only a few thousand cells, and only four types of cells ◦ The lease DNA of any animal ◦ Simple or Simplified? ‣ Is Trichoplax a simple animal ancestral to multi-celled animals or has it lost complexity? ‣ Many of the simplest animals are parasitic, and are related to more complex animals like flatworms • Major Subdivisions of the Animal Kingdom ◦ 'Near' animals ‣ Protozoans ‣ Include sponges, as well as Tricoplax ◦ 'True' Animals ‣ Eumetazoans • The Animal Kingdom: Metazoan • Sponges ◦ Same species, different shape ◦ No symmetry is present ◦ A sponge is a loose association of cells ◦ Body form affected by environmental conditions: current speed and direction, temperature and food (affect growth rate), adjacent structures • How do sponges work ◦ By pumping water through their body ◦ Flagellated cells inside the sponges create currents ◦ Those cells and others capture small particles of food from the water • Smallest Sponges ◦ A simple tube design ◦ Design does work when the sponges get larger ◦ A simple wall with large size would create stagnant zone in the middle, so the design only reaches about 1mm in size • Largest Sponges ◦ Laced with canals ◦ Chambers with flagellated cells • Spicules ◦ Skeletal elements of a sponge • Spongin ◦ Skeletal material ◦ (Bath sponge) • Why sponges are important ◦ Water clarity ‣ Sponges filter an enormous amount of water ◦ Pharmaceuticals- sponges produce chemicals that deter predators and organisms that might try to grow over them ‣ The chemicals are also used to stop predators from eating them ◦ These chemicals are being investigated for their value as drugs • Sponges as bioremediation tools ◦ A simple sponge can filter 100's of gallons of water per day ◦ Can remove about 75% of bacteria in that water ◦ May be useful in bioremediation of sewage effluent, runoff, aquaculture systems • Glass Sponges ◦ Often found on coral reefs and in the deep ocean • Giant Barrel Sponge ◦ Can grow to 6' in diameter and live 1000's of years • Predatory Sponges ◦ A few predatory species have been found ◦ Capture tiny prey with hooked spicules, then grow over it • Boring Sponges ◦ Bioerosion by boring demosponges ◦ Have chambers inside • Microciona Prolifera ◦ Redbeard Sponge (example) ◦ Microciona cell reaggregation ◦ Sponge faced though cheesecloth ◦ Sponge cells group back together • Communication ◦ Key feature of the evolution of early animals is cell to cell communication ◦ A sponge cell can recognize that another cell is the same species • Phylum Cnidaria ‣ Stinging Animals ‣ First "true" animals ◦ Cnidarian Novelties ‣ New to the animal kingdom ‣ Radial symmetry- defined form ‣ Nerves- behavior ‣ Muscles- movement ‣ Two tissue layers: Epidermis and Gastrodermis ◦ Body Forms ‣ Polyp • Typically attaches to a surface ‣ Medusae ◦ Muscles ‣ Muscles are extensions of epithelial (skin) cells ◦ Nerve Net ‣ A net of nerves that cover the body ‣ Thick around the mouth ‣ Very useful b/c they don't have a brain ◦ Cnidocytes ‣ On stimulation cnidocyte swells, forcing lid to open, releasing barbed tread ‣ Discharge= 3ms, an acceleration of 40,000 g ‣ The image is a sequence showing cnidocyte contacting and penetrating skin of prey ◦ Reproduction ‣ May be clonal by budding of polyp stage • Genetically identical to parent ‣ Also have sexual phase with egg and sperm producing larvae that grows into polyp • Three main groups of Cnidarians ◦ Hydrozoans • Exhibit both polyp and medusa forms • Budding of polyp leads to asexual reproduction (cloning) • Budding of medusa leads to sexual reproduction • Budding polyps and medusa remain attached to form colonies • Note that digestive systems of colony members are interconnected ‣ Zooids • Are individual colony members with specialized role ◦ Feeding Zooids- more common type ◦ Defensive Zooid- tentacle armed with cnidocytes, no mouth ◦ Reproductive Zooid- No mouth ◦ Swimming bells and floats ‣ Hydroid Colony • Siphonophores- colonial hydrozoans • Colonies are made up of highly specialized Zooids • Some species can grow over 100' long (deep sea) • Portuguese Man-O-War ◦ Jelly Fish • Food captured with tentacles and oral arms, carried to mouth • Digested in stomach, then carried to rest of body by narrow canals • Have both medusae and polyp stages ‣ Box Jellies • Jellyfish with four sides • Rapid swimmers, active at night • Includes potentially lethal Sea Wasps • Have numerous eyes, some capable of forming image ‣ Jellyfish in the news • Jellyfish populations have been exploding in recent years • Japan has been plagued by giant Nomura jellyfish that can weigh over 400 pounds • Population explosions ◦ Crowding fishing nets in Japan • Jelly fish stop he beaches ‣ Why the population explosions? • Do warmer water promote fast growth? • Loss of predators? • Loss of competitors for the plankton they feed on? • Uncertain at this point ◦ Anthozoans • Anemone and corals • Anemones are polyps ‣ Reaction/ Expansion • Retractor muscles can retract tentacles and compress body • Pumping by cilia that line throat reinflates polyp ‣ Corals and relatives • Stony Corals- Are the familiar corals that build coral reefs • Sea Fans- Have hard, branch-like structure • Soft Coals- Have no hard part, fibrous structure • Sea Pens- Are colonial form that anchors in sand ‣ Coral Symbiosis • Many tropical stony corals rely on symbiotic dinoflagellates for food • Symbiosis refers to organisms that are dependent upon one another to survive ‣ Symbiotic dinoflagellates • Live within the tissue of coral polyps • They can be seen by the color they give to the coral ‣ Symbiotic relationship: Benefits • To Dinoflagellates: ◦ Protection from predators ◦ Kept close to sunlight ◦ Receive nitrogen from coral in the form of excretion products • To Coral: ◦ Provides carbohydrates for coral (Many algae exclude excess sugars that they produce from photosynthesis but cannot use do to lack of other nutrients ‣ Coral forms • Corals can be roughly grouped in two categories based on shape ◦ Massive corals ◦ Branching corals ‣ Tradeoffs • Massive corals ◦ Example: Brain corals ◦ Resistant to storm damage, but slow growing. Ca be overgrown by fast- growing species and can be covered by sediment • Branching coral ◦ Example: Staghorn and plate coral ◦ Can grow quickly (r-selected) to outgrow competitors but are easily damaged by storms (although fragments may also start new colonies) ‣ Coral Reefs ◦ Coral reef distribution dependent on temperature due to symbionts and calcium carbonate chemistry ◦ Familiar coral reefs are found in warm, shallow water • Cold-water Reefs ◦ Also form in cold, often very deep water ◦ No symbionts, so slow growing • Warm-water Reefs ◦ Coral islands enclosing a lagoon are referred to as atolls ◦ The way atolls form as the first proposed by Charles Darwin • Atoll Development ◦ Active Volcano ◦ Fringing Reef ◦ Barrier Reef ◦ Atoll ◦ Weight of volcano causes it to sink in ◦ As volcano sinks, the coral reef separates from the volcano ◦ As volcano sinks, reef moves higher ◦ Barrier reef forms as island continues to sink ◦ Reef continues to grow ◦ Barrier Reef ‣ Fringing feel along continents can also become barrier reefs as sea level rose following the ice age\ ◦ Sinking of island forms atoll lagoon ‣ Island below sea level • Coral Treats ◦ 1. Sediment ‣ Land use practices (deforestation, agriculture, coastal development) can increase sediment load ‣ Destruction mangrove swamps loses their filtering role ‣ Coral defense • Surface of corals covered with layer of mucous • Mucous traps sediment • Cilia moves mucous, and sediment, off coral head • Much of the symbiont food goes into producing this mucus ◦ 2. Nutrient Runoff ‣ Excess nutrients can fuel algae growth, overgrowing the corals ◦ 3. Coral Bleaching ‣ Loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates ‣ recovery is possible if bleaching is short term ‣ Causes • In general caused by stress • Pollution has been implicated • Temperature is prime culprit of recent events such as zooxanthella they are expected from coral • In some cases zooxanthellae can rein habit bleached corals polyps ◦ 4. Carbon dioxide increase ‣ CO2 in atmosphere will diffuse into ocean, mire in cold water than warm ‣ IN Water, CO2 forms carbonic acid ‣ High levels can prevent corals from absorbing sufficient calcium carbonate • Comb Jellies ‣ Important predators of zooplankton in ocean ‣ Can grow fast and dominate plankton ‣ Have come rows, plates of fused cilia, for swimming ‣ High densities of Mnemiopsis, a species that invited black sea causing havoc to fisheries ◦ Position on the animal tree ‣ Once grouped with cnidarians because of their resemblance to jellyfish ‣ New genetic evidence indicates that comb jellies may be more ancient, and may have been one of the earliest animal groups to evolve, even before sponges • Flatworm (planaria) ◦ Appear at a critical junction in evolution ◦ Cnidarian Limitations ‣ 1. Muscles are extensions of skin cells, just one layer think ‣ 2. Central chamber has many functions • Digestion, respiration, extension, reproduction ‣ As animals move, one part of the body experiences new environments first ‣ Key consequence of movement is tendency to locate sense and feeding organs near front of animal • Statocyst is sense organ located towards front ◦ Flatworms are mainly predators ◦ Muscles ‣ Consist of longitudinal, latitudinal, and diagonal muscle fibers that gives them great control over body movement ◦ Locomotion ‣ Flatworms secrete packets of condensed mucous that forms a layer of slime ‣ epidermis is covered with cilia, which pushed against mucous to propel animal ◦ Simplest flatworms ‣ The gut is simply a mass of cells that engulfs food ◦ Complex flatworms ‣ Have a true gut with branching chambers ◦ Innovations of flatworms ‣ 1. Appearance of a head ‣ 2. Three true tissue layers • Which allows isolation of interior of the animal ‣ 3. Organ systems • Excretory, digestive, reproductive, and nervous systems ◦ Nervous system ‣ Note concentration of nerves in head ◦ Fission of Planaria ‣ One advantage of the repetition of body parts is each piece contains come organs • Nerve, digestive, reproductive ◦ Parasitic Flatworms ‣ 1. Flukes (trematodes) ‣ 2. Tapeworm (cestodes) ‣ Parasitic forms are highly specialized and often bear little resemblance to free- living forms ◦ Flukes ‣ Parasitic flatworms ‣ Have mouth and digestive tract ‣ Attach with bhooksand suckers ‣ Feed on blood and tissue ‣ Schistosomiasis (blood flukes) affects 200,000,000 people ◦ Tapeworms ‣ Very different from free-living flatworms ‣ No digestive system of mouth ‣ Absorb food directly through skin ‣ Attach with 'scolex', new segments bud off this ‣ Segments contain both male and female organs, and produce 50,000 eggs each ‣ each worm may have 2,000-4,000 segments ‣ Affects > 100,000,000 people worldwide • Roundworms (nematodes) ◦ Simple design, vast numbers of species and individuals ◦ Have cuticle, and molt their exoskeleton ‣ Cuticle is hard outer layer formed by skin ‣ Exoskeleton is external layer supporting muscles ‣ Molt is the shedding of exoskeleton in order to grow ◦ Having a fixed number of cells as adults is common ◦ Internal anatomy ‣ Cuticle is rigid and muscles are longitudinal (lengthwise) only ◦ Body is a pressurized cylinder closed off at mouth and anus by muscles ‣ This creates a hydrostatic skeleton ◦ Parasitic roundworms are common ◦ Types of Roundworms ‣ Roundworms, pinworms, trichinella (trichinosis), and dog heart worms ◦ Nematodes ‣ Important agricultural pets ‣ They can be helpful if they infect other pets ◦ Nematode Diversity ‣ "If all matter on earth except for nematode were to suddenly vanish, the outline of every form, living and non-living, would be visible as a ghostly shadow." ‣ One basic body form, yet number of species may be greater than that
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