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BIOL 221 - Class Notes - Week 6

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BIOL 221 - Class Notes - Week 6

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background image Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks Topic 1.1 Microbes: Tiny but Might List the six types of microbes o Bacteria
o Archaea 
o Protozoa
o Fungi
o Helminths 
o Viruses 
Topic 1.2 Microbes and the Planet Impact of Microbes on the Earth o Bacteria perform photosynthesis 
o Microbes produce CO2, nitrous oxide, and methane which control 
earth’s temperature  o Bacteria and fungi protect plants from disease and help them get  water and nutrients  Theory of Evolution o The adaptation of living organisms 
o The better adapted animals survive
o Favorable genetic differences are passed on to the offspring
Define Theory o An idea that has a lot of data to support it, but hasn’t been completely  proven Why is the theory of evolution still called a theory? o There is a lot of evidence to support it, but it is impossible to prove  Topic 1.3 Microbes & Humans Humans Manipulate Organism for Their Own Use o Domestication  Microbes make cheese, yogurt, bread, alcohol, acetone  o Biotechnology: using microbes to make products industrially Microbes make rubbing alcohol, human insulin, and antibiotics o Genetic Engineering: use microbes to make things by manipulating the genetics  Recombinant DNA Technology: transferring DNA from one 
organism to another
Ex: Insert the gene for human insulin into a microbe and 
use the microbe as a host to produce more insulin 
o Bioremediation: the ability of microbes to clean up toxic pollutants Certain forms of bacteria and yeast eat petroleum and clean oil 
spills 
background image Human Disease Caused by Microbes o Emerging diseases
o New diseases
o Noninfectious diseases becoming infectious 
o Cancer – linked to viruses 
Topic 1.5 What are They [Microbes] Exactly? Differentiate Between a Prokaryote and a Eukaryote  o Eukaryote Have a nucleus and organelles  Can be multicellular or unicellular  o Prokaryote  Do not have a nucleus or organelles  Always unicellular  Third Type of Microorganism o Viruses Acellular  Have genetic material wrapped in a capsid  Relative Sizes of the Different Microbes o Helminths are the largest
o Prokaryotes are 10x smaller than eukaryotes
o Viruses are the smallest 
Topic 1.6 Macromolecules: Superstructures of Life Four Main Families of Biochemicals o Carbohydrates  Glycocaylx, peptidoglycan
o Lipids  cell membrane, phospholipid bilayer
o Proteins  chromosomes, flagella, cytoskeleton, peptidoglycan, 
enzymes, transport proteins, receptor proteins  o Nucleic Acids  DNA and RNA, chromosomes, plasmids, ribosomes  Structures of Proteins o Primary – linear sequence of amino acids 
o Secondary – hydrogen bonding creates alpha helices and beta sheets
o Tertiary – side chain interactions create a 3D structure 
o Quaternary – more than one amino acid chain together 
Components of Nucleic Acids o Five carbon sugar (ribose)
o Phosphate Group
o Nitrogenous Base
Nucleotides of DNA and RNA o DNA  adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
o RNA  adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine 
Components of ATP o Three phosphate groups  Three Characteristics All Cells Share o Cell membrane
o Cytoplasm 
background image o DNA/RNA Topic 1.7 Naming, Classifying, and Identifying Microorganisms Nomenclature: process of assigning a scientific name  Taxonomy: the science of classifying living things  Classification: sorting organisms into their specific taxonomic categories  Taxonomic Categories o Domain Dear o Kingdom King  o Phylum Phillip,  o Class Come  o Order Over  o Family  For  o Genus  Good  o Species  Spaghetti!  Binomial Name = genus name + species name  Three Major Domains o Bacteria
o Archaea 
o Eukaryota 
Chapter 3: Prokaryotic Structure Topic 3.1 Prokaryotic Form & Function All Bacteria Have. . .  o Cytoplasm 
o Ribosomes
o Plasma membrane 
o Nucleoid containing DNA
Some Bacteria Have. . . o Appendages (flagella, fimbriae, cilia, pilus)
o Inclusions
o Capsule 
o Cell wall 
o Plasmids
Shapes of Prokaryotes o Cocci  round balls
o Bacilli  rods
Vibrio  comma shape Spirilium  rigid corkscrew with flagella  Spirochete  flexible corkscrew Topic 3.2 External Structures Appendages o 1. Glycocaylx

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School: College of Western Idaho
Department: Biology
Course: Microbiology
Professor: Teresa Rich
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Microbiology
Name: Microbiology Study Guide for Test 1
Description: This is a completed version of the study guide for the first test. Good luck! Hope this helps!
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
9 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
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