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UCCS - BIOL 2010 - Lecture Exam #1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UCCS - BIOL 2010 - Lecture Exam #1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Content molecular recognition     Size (fit)    Shape (fit)    Charge (attraction)    Hydrophobicity/ hydrophilicity (location)  Levels of organization:     Organism Level 
  Organ System Level (organ system: organs that interact to perform a specific range of 
functions, often in a coordinated fashion)    Organ Level (organ: functional unit composed of more than one tissue type) 
  Tissue Level 
  Cellular Level 
  Chemical Levels (atoms & molecules)  Cell Theory:   1.  Cells are the building blocks of all life 
2.  Cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells 
3.  Cells are the smallest structural units that still perform all vital functions 
  Types of Tissue:   Epithelial Tissue: layer of cells that form a barrier with specific properties. Epithelia cover every 
exposed body surface; they line the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts; 
surround internal cavities like the chest, brain, eyes, inner ear, and they line the inner surfaces of 
blood vessels and the heart (covers, protects, secretes)
    Covers and protects exposed surfaces 
  Lines internal passageways and chambers 
  Produces glandular secretions 
  Connective Tissue: contains cells and an extracellular matrix that consists of protein fibers and a 
liquid known as the ground substance
    Fills internal spaces 
  Provides structural support 
  Stores energy  
  Muscle Tissue: skeletal movement, soft tissue support, maintenance of blood flow, movement of 
materials along internal passageways, and stabilization of normal body temperature
    Contracts to produce active movement 
background image   Neural Tissue: carries information or instructions from one place to another. Consists of neurons 
and neuroglia. Can be divided into central nervous system (brain & spinal cord) and peripheral 
nervous system (nerves connecting CNS to other tissues & organs)
    Conducts electrical impulses 
  Carries information 
  Maintaining Homeostasis:   1.  Receptor: senses environmental change  
2.  Control Center: receives & processes information then sends out commands 
3.  Effector: responds to commands by opposing stimulus 
Negative feedback: primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation; provides long term control 
over the body's internal conditions & systems; negates original stimulus
  Positive feedback: initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change 
in the original conditions, rather than opposing it; produces extreme responses; typically found 
when a potentially dangerous or stressful process must be completed quickly before homeostasis 
can be restored
   Viscera: internal organs partially or completely enclosed by body cavities    Important properties of water:     Lubrication – reduces frictions between two surfaces     Chemical reactant – participates in reactions (dehydration synthesis & hydrolysis)     High heat capacity – requires a lot of energy to raise its temperature      Solubility – a lot of molecules (solutes) are able to dissolve in water (to become a 
solvent)
  Dissociation/ionization: when ionic bonds are broken as individual ions interact with the positive 
and negatives poles of water molecules 
  Hydration sphere: sheath of water molecules surrounding an ion in a solution   Electrolytes: soluble inorganic substances whose ions will conduct an electrical current in a 
solution
  Colloid: a solution containing dispersed proteins or other large molecules   Suspension: a solution with large particles that will settle out of solution if undisturbed due to the 
force of gravity 
  Acidosis: abnormal physiological state when blood pH goes below 7.35   Alkalosis: abnormally high pH above 7.45   Buffers & buffer systems help maintain pH levels within normal limits  
background image Functional Groups of Organic Compounds   Amino Group      Acts as a base accepting H+, 
ex. Amino Acids
   
 
 
Carboxyl Group      Acts as an acid releasing H+, 
ex. Fatty acids & amino acids
   
 
 
Hydroxyl Group      May link molecules through 
dehydration synthesis           
ex. Carbohydrates, fatty 
acids, amino acids & alcohol
    Phosphate Group     May link other molecules to 
form larger structures, may 
store energy                          
ex. Phospholipids, nucleic 
acids, high energy 
compounds 
    Carbohydrates (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen – in a ratio near 1:2:1)   Structural Class   Examples   Primary Functions   Remarks   Monosaccharides  
(
simple sugars)
  Glucose, fructose   Energy storage   Manufactured in the 
body and obtained from 
food; distributed in 
body fluids
  Disaccharides    Sucrose, lactose, 
maltose
  Energy storage   Sucrose: table sugar 
lactose: in milk  
maltose: malt sugar; all 
must be broken down 
to monosaccharides 
before adsorption
  polysaccharides   glycogen   Glucose storage   Glycogen is in animal 
cells; other starches & 
cellulose are within or 
around plant cells
         
background image   Lipids (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen – typically carbon-to-hydrogen ratio is 1:2)   Lipid Type   Examples   Primary Functions   Remarks   Fatty Acids   Lauric acid   Energy sources   Absorbed from food or 
synthesized in cells; 
transported in the blood
  Glycerides   Monoglycerides, 
diglycerides, 
triglycerides
  Energy sources, 
energy storage, 
insulation, and 
physical protection
  Stored in fat deposits; 
must be broken down 
to fatty acids before 
they can be used as an 
energy source
  Elcosanoids   Prostaglandins, 
leukotriens
  Chemical messengers 
coordinating local 
cellular activities
  Prostaglandins are 
produced in most body 
tissues
  Steroids   Cholesterol   Structural 
components of cell 
membranes, 
hormones, digestive 
secretions in bile
  All steroids have the 
same carbon ring 
framework
  Phospholipids, 
glycolipids
  Lecithin 
(phospholipid)
  Structural 
components of cell 
membranes
  Derived from fatty 
acids and nonlipid 
components 
    Proteins (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen)   Linked together by dehydration synthesis   Carboxyl & amino group form peptide bonds   1° Structure:   Amino acids bonding together to form a   linear chain   2° Structure:   Bonds between atoms at different parts    of the peptide chain (α helix or β sheet)   3° Structure:    Coiling & folding that gives a protein its 3D shape    4° Structure:   Interaction between individual polypeptide chains to form a protein complex    

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School: University of Colorado Colorado Springs
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology
Professor: Sabine Allenspach
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Name: Lecture Exam #1 Study Guide
Description: everything from class to homework notes
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
13 Pages 53 Views 42 Unlocks
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