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Geography Test 1 Study Guide

by: Lauren Price

Geography Test 1 Study Guide Geography 101

Lauren Price
GPA 4.0

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Lengthy study guide for the geography test 1
World Geography
Erik Nicholas Johanson
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Price on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geography 101 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Erik Nicholas Johanson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Geography Study Guide ­Geography is the study of the interaction between people, culture, environment, and  space ­3 main sub­fields: Physical, Human, Geographic  ­Plate tectonics and the ring of fire ­Natural disasters ­Global warming, implications: water and food security, coastline retraction  ­Impacts of domestication: created surplus for trade, emergencies, allowed for  specialization, environmental degradation, enabled population growth  ­Subsistence agriculture: growing what is needed for the population  ­Mono­crop agriculture: mechanized, chemically intensive, large­scale, commercial  agriculture  ­Globalization is the shift from a local based economy to one with a global  interdependence on goods, money, and people over great distances. ­Golden Arches ­Concerns over food and water security: population growth, global warming (fresh water storage), water purity (pollution)  ­Know population pyramids ­The most rapidly growing populations are poorer  ­Globalization has accelerated movement of people, need for more specialists and labor ­GDP = total numbers of goods and services produced in a country in a given year.  Used as a measure when comparing countries. ­Machismo North America  ­Cahokia, native­american state, larger than London at it’s time Yankeedom and New Netherland , pilgrims wanting religious freedom, education,  intellectual achievement, New York City, Detroit, Chicago New France : SE Canada and Louisiana, settled by the French and native people,  Creole, multicultural and liberal, acceptance of all ethnicities and lifestyles, Montreal,  New Orleans Greater Appalachia : settled by Northern Ireland and England, Scottish lowlands,  commitment to personal sovereignty and individual liberty, suspicious of lowland  aristocrats and Yankee social engineers. Great Smoky Mountains, Nashville Midlands:  middle america and the heartland, doesn’t like the government , mostly a  German majority, Kansas City, Great Plains, Dust Bowl Far West : high dry, and remote, The Rockies, Yellowstone, Phoenix, The Grand  Canyon First Nation:huge territory with low population, Northern Canada, Anchorage, native  american groups that never left their territory Left Coast : colonized by New Englanders and Appalachian Midwesterners, hybrid of  Yankee utopianism and Appalachian self­expression, Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Fransisco, Los Angeles Deep South : established by English slave lords, meant as a West Indies, Charleston,  Memphis El Norte: Mexico­US Mexico and US ties: strong economic ties, over 1 million US citizens live in Mexico,  Mexico helped us during Hurricane Katrina  NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement, Canada, Mexico, and US that  importing and exporting goods wouldn’t be taxed TPP: Trans­Pacific Partnership similar to NAFTA, but between more islands and  Australia, New Zealand Middle America ­Northern American region (costa rica, etc.), Central America, Middle America, greater  and Lesser Antilles  ­Fault lines, coastal lowlands and interior highlands, Panama Canal, tropical rainforests, coral reefs ­Huge amount of biodiversity ­Olmec, Maya, and Aztec: state­level societies, huge civilizations as big as states.  Urbanized society, economic intensification and specialization, monumental architecture and public buildings, record keeping, state religion  Olmec :Gulf Coast of Mexico, southern part, earliest culture in Mesoamerica, “mother  culture”  Mayan :Highland Guatemala and adjacent countries, lowland rainforests, dry scrub  forests of northern Yucatan. Writings, records, calendars, and astronomy. Theories of  destruction: rapid population increase, exhaustion of soils.  Aztecs : Valley of Mexico, Tenochtitlan, capital below Mexico City, captured by  Hernando Cortez, Spaniards brought new diseases and wiped them out Caste system in Mexico: Peninsulares: Spaniards and other white born in Europe Creoles: Spaniards and other whites born in the Americas Indios: Amerindians Mestizos: Mixed Amerindian and white  Mulattos: Mixed African and white Zambos: Mixed Amerindian and African mix Negros: Africans  Mexican Independence: Hernan Cortes, began in 1810 and lasted 11 years, ruled by  the non­indigenous people who were rich, remained loyal to America Primate city: Huge city with the next largest city being much smaller  Positive effects: large market for goods and services, ability to offer high­end goods  including education, enhanced flow of information and ideas, centralized transportation Negative effects: stress on natural resources, uneven development, brain drain Tourism in Mexico: focused in Cabos, Cancun, and Mexico City. Doesn’t really help  local economy, most locals live in poverty Guatemala : Guatemala City and Tikal: Mesoamerican city of the Mayans Belize:  Belize Barrier Reef and the Blue Hole Honduras : Tegucigalpa Nicaragua : Less than 6 million, large freshwater lake in the middle of the country,  Managua, very poor country, Grenada Costa Rica : huge biodiversity, San Jose, coffee, no military, blue zone, ecotourism,  lots of national parks, banned recreational hunting  3 zones of Costa Rica: Caribbean Coast: picturesque beaches Pacific Coast: more dry and mountainous, Jurassic Park Interior Uplands and Volcanoes: tropical rain forests Ecotourism: Pros: helps environment and conservation Dangers: visitor overcapacity, inadequate enforcement of protected park areas  due to lack of funding, etc.  Panama : Panama Canal, constructed by US in 1914 and controlled until 1999, safer  shorter passage for boats, new third lane coming Caribbean :Lesser Antilles: Bahamas, Jamaica, Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands,  Bermuda, etc.  Greater Antilles: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and  Haiti), and Jamaica Cuba : dictatorship, US citizens allowed to visit not “spend money”, Bay of Pigs Hispaniola :  DR: Spanish speaking, strong economy, Catholic Haiti: French speaking, poor, Catholic/Voodoo South America ­The Andes ­Ethnic diversity and indigenous population ­Incan Empire, Pizarro (conquered the Incas), War of Brothers, Smallpox  ­Modern problems: political instability, drug trafficking and violence, economic  inequality, exploitation and colonial legacy, environmental degradation  Columbia : poverty down 20% since 2002, unemployment at its lowest, record  economic growth, GDP per capita has doubled since 2002, Pablo Escobar, Medellin is  today a bustling economic destination Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands : where Darwin came up withe evolution,  Origin of Species Venezuela : lots of oil problems, leftists politics and problems with the US, angel falls Bolivia : salt flats, GDP issues, water security problems, rapid growth, lots of young  people and very little elderly, now land­locked because of Bird Poop War Peru : lots of copper and gold export, Machu Picchu: one of the seven wonders of the  world, Lake Titicaca Chile : economically prosperous, zones of Chile, North to South: Norte Grande: Atacama Desert, world’s driest desert, supports over 1 million Norte Chico: Cattle raising, type of Southern US Zona Central: most of population and economic activity Zona Sur: very green with lots of precipitation Zona Austral: snow capped peaks and glaciers Lots of wine and copper, Bird Poop War: Chile gained land and Bolivia and Peru lost  some because they lost, air pollution, 4 causes: diesel fuels, copper mine smelter,  Santiago is located in a bowl shaped valley, thermal inversion. Education conflict,  people my age protested for better education and more government funding. Half of  population goes to private schools. Easter Island : Rapa Nui, people used all of their tries to make giant heads so the  population collapsed from 15,000 to 2,000 Patagonia: dam project, didn’t happen because of environmental issues and protests Argentina : 8th largest country in the world, Buenos Aires, tango, European history and the people tie their heritage to Europe (Spanish, Italian, and German), large support for  fascism in Europe and the Nazis, “The Missing”, large beef production, most of the beef  production is in the Pampas, Gauchos are cowboys, pato is the national sport, Falkland  Island War (Argentina vs. Britain), obsessed with soccer, Church of Maradona is a  religion created by fans of the retired Argentine soccer player Diego Maradona, Igazu  Falls Paraguay/Uruguay : lots of “The Missing” were dropped into the water between  Uruguay and Argentina, Paraguay is the second landlocked country with a large  percentage of indigenous people Brazil : 201 million people, Portuguese, Rio: 2014 world cup, summer olympics, and  carnival, Christ the Redeemer Statue, Favelas: tightly packed houses, very poor and  dangerous. Sao Paulo is the biggest city, they rivaled with Rio because Rio was smaller but was the capital, switched to Brasilia because of this. Trans­Atlantic slave trade,  Brazil was the worst place for slaves, they created Capoeira as a dance/form of combat  since they didn’t have weapons. Amazon is the second largest river system in the world. Deforestation has declined heavily in recent years. Amazonian tribes are being pushed  out due to illegal logging, pushing them deeper into the rainforest. Uncontacted people  are threatened because of this. The common cold could kill them along with other  diseases, violence from Peru is also threatening them


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