Geography Study Guide
Geography is the study of the interaction between people, culture, environment, and space
3 main subfields: Physical, Human, Geographic
Plate tectonics and the ring of fire
Global warming, implications: water and food security, coastline retraction Impacts of domestication: created surplus for trade, emergencies, allowed for specialization, environmental degradation, enabled population growth Subsistence agriculture: growing what is needed for the population Monocrop agriculture: mechanized, chemically intensive, largescale, commercial agriculture
Globalization is the shift from a local based economy to one with a global interdependence on goods, money, and people over great distances. Golden Arches
Concerns over food and water security: population growth, global warming (fresh water storage), water purity (pollution) Don't forget about the age old question of How did jazz change in the 1930s?
Know population pyramids
The most rapidly growing populations are poorer
Globalization has accelerated movement of people, need for more specialists and labor GDP = total numbers of goods and services produced in a country in a given year. Used as a measure when comparing countries. We also discuss several other topics like When does the invasion of mexico happen?
Cahokia, nativeamerican state, larger than London at it’s time
Yankeedom and New Netherland, pilgrims wanting religious freedom, education, intellectual achievement, New York City, Detroit, Chicago
New France: SE Canada and Louisiana, settled by the French and native people, Creole, multicultural and liberal, acceptance of all ethnicities and lifestyles, Montreal, New Orleans
Greater Appalachia: settled by Northern Ireland and England, Scottish lowlands, commitment to personal sovereignty and individual liberty, suspicious of lowland aristocrats and Yankee social engineers. Great Smoky Mountains, Nashville Midlands: middle america and the heartland, doesn’t like the government , mostly a German majority, Kansas City, Great Plains, Dust Bowl
Far West: high dry, and remote, The Rockies, Yellowstone, Phoenix, The Grand Canyon
First Nation: huge territory with low population, Northern Canada, Anchorage, native american groups that never left their territory
Left Coast: colonized by New Englanders and Appalachian Midwesterners, hybrid of Yankee utopianism and Appalachian selfexpression, Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Fransisco, Los Angeles We also discuss several other topics like How are the mind and body related?
Deep South: established by English slave lords, meant as a West Indies, Charleston, Memphis
El Norte: MexicoUS
Mexico and US ties: strong economic ties, over 1 million US citizens live in Mexico, Mexico helped us during Hurricane Katrina
NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement, Canada, Mexico, and US that importing and exporting goods wouldn’t be taxed
TPP: TransPacific Partnership similar to NAFTA, but between more islands and Australia, New Zealand
Northern American region (costa rica, etc.), Central America, Middle America, greater and Lesser Antilles
Fault lines, coastal lowlands and interior highlands, Panama Canal, tropical rainforests, coral reefs
Huge amount of biodiversity
Olmec, Maya, and Aztec: statelevel societies, huge civilizations as big as states. Urbanized society, economic intensification and specialization, monumental architecture and public buildings, record keeping, state religion
Olmec: Gulf Coast of Mexico, southern part, earliest culture in Mesoamerica, “mother culture”
Mayan: Highland Guatemala and adjacent countries, lowland rainforests, dry scrub forests of northern Yucatan. Writings, records, calendars, and astronomy. Theories of destruction: rapid population increase, exhaustion of soils. Don't forget about the age old question of What results from a cross with incomplete dominant alleles?
Aztecs: Valley of Mexico, Tenochtitlan, capital below Mexico City, captured by Hernando Cortez, Spaniards brought new diseases and wiped them out Caste system in Mexico: Peninsulares: Spaniards and other white born in Europe Creoles: Spaniards and other whites born in the Americas We also discuss several other topics like How do you express a relation in a graph?
Mestizos: Mixed Amerindian and white
Mulattos: Mixed African and white
Zambos: Mixed Amerindian and African mix
Mexican Independence: Hernan Cortes, began in 1810 and lasted 11 years, ruled by the nonindigenous people who were rich, remained loyal to America Primate city: Huge city with the next largest city being much smaller Positive effects: large market for goods and services, ability to offer highend goods including education, enhanced flow of information and ideas, centralized transportation Negative effects: stress on natural resources, uneven development, brain drain
Tourism in Mexico: focused in Cabos, Cancun, and Mexico City. Doesn’t really help local economy, most locals live in poverty Don't forget about the age old question of What do you call the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions?
Guatemala: Guatemala City and Tikal: Mesoamerican city of the Mayans Belize: Belize Barrier Reef and the Blue Hole
Nicaragua: Less than 6 million, large freshwater lake in the middle of the country, Managua, very poor country, Grenada
Costa Rica: huge biodiversity, San Jose, coffee, no military, blue zone, ecotourism, lots of national parks, banned recreational hunting
3 zones of Costa Rica: Caribbean Coast: picturesque beaches
Pacific Coast: more dry and mountainous, Jurassic Park
Interior Uplands and Volcanoes: tropical rain forests
Ecotourism: Pros: helps environment and conservation
Dangers: visitor overcapacity, inadequate enforcement of protected park areas due to lack of funding, etc.
Panama: Panama Canal, constructed by US in 1914 and controlled until 1999, safer shorter passage for boats, new third lane coming
Caribbean: Lesser Antilles: Bahamas, Jamaica, Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Bermuda, etc.
Greater Antilles: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), and Jamaica
Cuba: dictatorship, US citizens allowed to visit not “spend money”, Bay of Pigs Hispaniola:
DR: Spanish speaking, strong economy, Catholic
Haiti: French speaking, poor, Catholic/Voodoo
Ethnic diversity and indigenous population
Incan Empire, Pizarro (conquered the Incas), War of Brothers, Smallpox Modern problems: political instability, drug trafficking and violence, economic inequality, exploitation and colonial legacy, environmental degradation Columbia: poverty down 20% since 2002, unemployment at its lowest, record economic growth, GDP per capita has doubled since 2002, Pablo Escobar, Medellin is today a bustling economic destination
Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands: where Darwin came up withe evolution, Origin of Species
Venezuela: lots of oil problems, leftists politics and problems with the US, angel falls Bolivia: salt flats, GDP issues, water security problems, rapid growth, lots of young people and very little elderly, now landlocked because of Bird Poop War Peru: lots of copper and gold export, Machu Picchu: one of the seven wonders of the world, Lake Titicaca
Chile: economically prosperous, zones of Chile, North to South:
Norte Grande: Atacama Desert, world’s driest desert, supports over 1 million Norte Chico: Cattle raising, type of Southern US
Zona Central: most of population and economic activity
Zona Sur: very green with lots of precipitation
Zona Austral: snow capped peaks and glaciers
Lots of wine and copper, Bird Poop War: Chile gained land and Bolivia and Peru lost some because they lost, air pollution, 4 causes: diesel fuels, copper mine smelter, Santiago is located in a bowl shaped valley, thermal inversion. Education conflict, people my age protested for better education and more government funding. Half of population goes to private schools.
Easter Island: Rapa Nui, people used all of their tries to make giant heads so the population collapsed from 15,000 to 2,000
Patagonia: dam project, didn’t happen because of environmental issues and protests Argentina: 8th largest country in the world, Buenos Aires, tango, European history and the people tie their heritage to Europe (Spanish, Italian, and German), large support for fascism in Europe and the Nazis, “The Missing”, large beef production, most of the beef production is in the Pampas, Gauchos are cowboys, pato is the national sport, Falkland Island War (Argentina vs. Britain), obsessed with soccer, Church of Maradona is a religion created by fans of the retired Argentine soccer player Diego Maradona, Igazu Falls
Paraguay/Uruguay: lots of “The Missing” were dropped into the water between Uruguay and Argentina, Paraguay is the second landlocked country with a large percentage of indigenous people
Brazil: 201 million people, Portuguese, Rio: 2014 world cup, summer olympics, and carnival, Christ the Redeemer Statue, Favelas: tightly packed houses, very poor and dangerous. Sao Paulo is the biggest city, they rivaled with Rio because Rio was smaller but was the capital, switched to Brasilia because of this. TransAtlantic slave trade, Brazil was the worst place for slaves, they created Capoeira as a dance/form of combat since they didn’t have weapons. Amazon is the second largest river system in the world. Deforestation has declined heavily in recent years. Amazonian tribes are being pushed out due to illegal logging, pushing them deeper into the rainforest. Uncontacted people are threatened because of this. The common cold could kill them along with other diseases, violence from Peru is also threatening them