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Chapter 2 study guide

by: Ariel

Chapter 2 study guide EL316


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Chapter 2, based off the book notes
Foundations of Reading Techniques
Study Guide
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This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariel on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EL316 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Porter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 2 Examining Children’s Literacy Development 8-30-16 Agenda 8:00-8:50 •  Morning Message •  Read Aloud No David by David Shannon •  Essential Questions •  Nurturing young children’s language development Morning Message Dear Students, Today is Tuesday, August 30, 2016. Today I am going to share a really cute book about a little boy named David. His parents are always telling him “no”. When I was little I remember my mom would always tell me “no” when I asked if I could wear my pink poodle skirt to school. I loved my poodle skirt. It was not made of poodle hair but had a picture of a poodle dog at the bottom of the skirt. Everyone had a poodle skirt. After I read you the story, we will play a mystery game. I think you will really like it. A mystery is something that we don’t understand or confused about. You can use clues to help you figure out what the mystery might be. If it is not too hot, we will go outside for recess. When you are outside, look for animal tracks. In science we have been learning about how we can tell where an animal has been by seeing their tracks or footprints on the ground. Finally, we have a special guest visiting our classroom. Our visitor will share how she uses her dog to help her do things around her house. She calls her dog a service dog because he helps her. I hope you enjoy your day! Yours in reading, Dr. Porter Essential Questions for Chapter 2 •  How can teachers nurture young children’s language development? •  How can teachers foster children’s interest in literacy? •  What are the three stages children move writers?as they develop as readers and How can teachers nurture young children’s language development? Are these words familiar? 1.  Phonology 2.  Syntax 3.  Semantics 4.  Pragmatics The four language modes! (receptive Oral Language is understanding what is heard and expressive oral language is the ability to express thoughts through oral language) Oral Language •  Young children develop oral language through everyday experiences and interaction with parents and others literacy-development Team Discussion •  In the video, how did the care givers nurture language development? List all the different ways and be prepared to share with class. 15 minutes Break (10 Minutes) Oral Language Activities in the Classroom Instructional Procedures See Compendium after chapter 12 MOST VALUABLE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITY INTERACTIVE READ ALOUDS Children: Listen, learn new vocabulary, acquire more sophisticated sentence structures, develop listening and speaking skills, participate in retelling MOST VALUABLE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITY •  Grand Conversations •  Shared Reading •  Book Talks •  Choral Reading •  Interactive Writing •  Word Sort •  Language Experience •  Word Walls •  Story Boards •  Semantic Features analysis •  Story Retelling •  K-W-L charts Books that Develop Oral Language •  See list on page 42 •  Go through the books on your table and discuss how you could use these in your future classroom. Link Between Oral Language and Literacy •  Vocabulary knowledge is a strong predictor of beginning reading success •  Vocabulary knowledge is linked to decoding and comprehending •  Phonemic awareness and letter knowledge are significant precursors to decode words but not to their comprehension How do we assess a child’s Oral Language? Look fors: •  Speak clearly in complete sentences •  Respond to questions •  Initiate conversations •  Take turns •  Ask questions •  Participates in discussions •  Sing songs and recite finger-plays •  Tell about experiences •  Observations •  Anecdotal notes •  Checklists •  Video clips •  Monitor listening skills during conversations and discussions when reading or giving directions •  Can a child play with words (rhyming words and alliterations) •  Connects new words to concepts they are learning •  Uses new words as they talk Break 10 minutes What does this look like in the classroom? v=uk9cSteKdcM&index=1&list=PL1DE8C47047 F16821 v=UJmexsQv4ys&index=4&list=PL1DE8C47047 F16821 •  Mystery Bag Think about the benefits of this learning activity that promotes oral language development. https://www Directions for Mystery Bag •  Preparation: •  1. Find or create an interesting bag to use as the bag of mysteries 2a. Can be based on a themebjects to be placed in the mystery bag • For example: Things you find in a kitchen •  Implementation: •  1. Introduce the concept of descriptive language by describing several classroom objects a. For example: Show students a ruler and describe it as wooden, rectangular, and hard 2. Show students the bag of mysteries a. Place an unseen object in the bag b. Explain that students will attempt to guess the mystery object based on your desc. Model giving clues and allow students to guess 3. Place another unseen object in the bag 4. Select five students to be “describers” a. Each student reaches into the bag and, without looking at the object, produces a unique descriptive word for the object 5. Facilitate student guessing about what is in the bag a. When a correct guess is provided, reveal the object b. If students are unable to guess the object after several attempts, it can be revealed • Or five new students can be chosen to be “describers” to assist the rest of the class 6. Develop additional descriptive words once object is revealed a. Write words on chart paper 7. Repeat process with several classroom objects 8. Discuss a. What constitutes useful descriptive language? b. When is descriptive language useful and necessary? •  English Language Learners/ESL: •  - Prompt with either/or questions, for example "is it hard or soft?" - Provide "describers" with examples of mystery objects to practice ahead of time LD/Reading & Writing Difficulties: •  - Prompt with either/or questions, for example "is it hard or soft?" - A list of prompt phrases can be provided ahead of time so these students may practice Cultural Appropriateness & Diversity: •  - Select classroom objects that are familiar and meaningful to all students - Use as an opportunity to introduce artifacts from other cultures Differentiated Instruction: •  - Implement activity in small groups to more effectively differentiate level of difficulty of chosen mystery objects - Encourage proficient speakers to use complete sentences when giving descriptions Effective Literacy Practices HANDBOOK •  Sections: 1.  Creating a Literate Community 2.  Word Study and Fluency 3.  Connecting School and Home Creating a Literate Community Chapter 2 EL316 9-1-16 Agenda •  Read Aloud-Lilly’s Purple Plastic Purse by Kevin Henkes •  Review of Stages of Literacy Development •  Creating a Literate Community •  Handbook Directions Stages of Literacy Development Stage Reading Writing Emergent Children: Children: • notice environmental print • distinguish between writing and drawing • show interest in books • write letters and letter-like forms or scribble randomly on the page • pretend to read • develop an understanding of directionality • use picture cues and predictable patterns in books to retell the story • show interest in writing • reread familiar books with predictable patterns • write their first and last names • identify some letter names • write 5–20 familiar or high-frequency words • recognize 5–20 familiar or high-frequency words • use sentence frames to write a sentence Beginning Children: Children: • identify letter names and sounds • write from left to right • match spoken words to written words • print the upper- and lowercase letters • recognize 20–100 high-frequency words • write one or more sentences • use beginning, middle, and ending sounds to decode words • add a title • apply knowledge of the cueing systems to monitor reading • spell many words phonetically • self-correct while reading • spell 20–50 high-frequency words correctly • read slowly, word by word • write single-draft compositions • read orally • use capital letters to begin sentences • point to words when reading • use periods, question marks, and exclamation points to mark the end of sentences • make reasonable predictions • can reread their writing Fluent Children: Children: • identify most words automatically • use the writing process to write drafts and final copies • read with expression • write compositions with more than one paragraph • read at a rate of 100 words per minute or more • indent paragraphs • prefer to read silently • spell most of the 100 high-frequency words • identify unfamiliar words using the cueing systems • use sophisticated and technical vocabulary • recognize 100–300 high-frequency words • apply vowel patterns to spell words • use a variety of strategies effectively • add inflectional endings to words • often read independently • apply capitalization rules • use knowledge of text structure and genre to support comprehension • use commas, quotation marks, and other punctuation marks • make inferences Emergent • Use environmental print. • Have children use crayons for drawing and pencils for writing. • Include literacy materials in play centers. • Encourage children to use scribble writing or write random letters if they can’t do more-conventional writing. • Read aloud to children. • Teach handwriting skills. • Read big books and poems on charts using shared reading. • Use interactive writing for whole-class and small-group writing projects. • Introduce the title and author of books before reading. • Have children write their names on sign-in sheets each day. • Teach directionality and letter and word concepts using big books. • Have children write their own names and names of classmates. • Encourage children to make predictions and text-to-self connections. • Have children inventory or make lists of words they know how to • Have children retell and dramatize stories. write. • Have children respond to literature through talk and drawing. • Have children “write the classroom” by making lists of familiar words they find in the classroom. • Have children manipulate sounds using phonemic awareness activities. • Have children use frames such as “I like ” and “I see a ” to write sentences. • Use alphabet-learning routines. • Encourage children to remember what they write so they can read it. • Take children’s dictation using the Language Experience Approach. • Teach 20–24 high-frequency words. • Post words on a word wall. Stage Reading Writing Beginning • Read charts of poems and songs using choral reading. • Use interactive writing to teach concepts about written language. • Read leveled books during guided reading lessons. • Provide daily opportunities to write for a variety of purposes and using different genres. • Provide daily opportunities to read and reread books independently. • Introduce the writing process. • Teach phonics concepts and rules. • Teach children to develop a single idea in their compositions. • Teach children to cross-check using the cueing systems. • Teach the 100 high-frequency words. • Teach children to proofread their compositions. • Teach children to spell the 100 high-frequency words. • Point out whether texts are stories, informational books, or poems. • Teach contractions. • Teach predicting, connecting, cross-checking, and other strategies. • Teach capitalization and punctuation skills. • Teach the elements of story structure, particularly beginning, • Have children use computers to publish their writing. middle, and end. • Have children share their writing from the author’s chair. • Have children write in reading logs and participate in grand conversations. • Have children take books home to read with parents. Stage Reading Writing Fluent • Have children participate in literature circles. • Have children participate in writing workshop. • Have children participate in reading workshop. • Teach children to use the writing process. • Teach about genres and other text features. • Teach children to revise and edit their writing. • Involve children in author and genre studies. • Teach paragraphing skills. • Teach children to make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to- • Teach spelling rules. text connections. • Teach synonyms. • Expand children’s ability to use comprehension strategies. • Teach homonyms. • Have children respond to books through talk and writing. • Teach root words and affixes. • Teach children to use a dictionary and a thesaurus. PreK K 1 2 3 4 Some children Most children are Most children are Most second Most children Most fourth are emergent emergent readers beginning readers graders continue become fluent graders are fluent readers and and writers during and writers, and in the beginning readers and readers and writers before kindergarten, but through stage, but some writers by the end writers, but those coming to school, a few reach the instruction, their reach the fluent of the school year, who continue to but others enter beginning stage understanding of stage by the end but a few still struggle need the stage as a during the school the alphabetic of the school year. struggle with extra instruction result of school year. principle grows. literacy. in problem areas. experiences. Three Research-based principles for creating an effective literacy environment •  accessible materials •  purposeful room and wall displays of print materials •  Classroom routines that promote reading and writing • top_640x360_ccv2/ab/streaming/myeducationlab/ earlychildhoodeducation/EACH_015_335_iPad.mp4 important terms : Word wall Learning centers/Work stations Read-aloud Shared reading Guided reading Independent reading BEFORE WATCHING VIDEO What do you already know? In your groups, sketch a classroom. illustrate: 1.  specific areas for small-group and whole-class instruction; 2.  centers or work stations for independent and small-group practice; 3.  areas of the room that display print (books, posters, word walls, etc.); 4.  arrangement of furniture (chairs, tables, bookcases, etc.) for instruction and practice; and 5.  any other features that promote literacy development. 6.  Take a picture with your ipad Complete the Classroom Community Chart (PDF). Examine your sketch and chart to reflect on how you use the environment to promote reading, writing, and oral language. While watching the video, think about and take notes on these questions: What part of your classroom works well to promote reading and writing? What would you like to change? Video K-2 Reading Workshop 1.  Creating a Literate Community (2 days) DAY 1 •  In this section, you will watch Dr. Paratore's lecture on creating a literate community in early literacy. •  Use the posters to take notes on the lecture. •  In this video segment, Dr. Paratore discusses how effective and writing. The lecture focuses on: varied and accessible print materials and classroom resources, purposeful displays of print in the classroom, and classroom routines that promote targeted opportunities for writing and oral language development. After watching the lecture, think about the following statement by Dr. Paratore: “The decisions teachers make about their classroom contexts have a children's time to read.” motivation to read and a consequence in Review your notes and consider these questions: •  What are the important factors for planning and designing a literacy-rich environment? •  What classroom literacy routines promote reading and writing to "get things done"? •  Do the decisions teachers make to create a literate classroom environment in kindergarten, grade 1, and grade 2 differ? How? Why? After watching the classroom excerpts, consider these questions: 1.  How did the classroom environments promote children's independent reading and writing? 2.  What areas of literacy and specific skills were emphasized in each classroom environment? 3.  How did each classroom promote opportunities to use reading, writing, and oral language? 4.  Becky Pursley says, "My classroom arrangement has always been a struggle to me." What are your challenges in creating a literate classroom environment? How have you addressed these challenges? Effective Literacy Practices HANDBOOK t 3 Sections: 1. Creating a Literate Community 2. Word Study and Fluency 3. Home and Family Connection 1. CREATING A LITERATE COMMUNITY You will include resources that you plan to use in the future. You must choose at least 3 items for this section. 1.  themes throughout the year 2.  lists of books categorized by topics, genres, or themes you teach 3.  lists of books categorized by reading level 4.  lists of related print materials to display in the room (word walls, charts, poems, student work, etc.) 5.  classroom arrangements for reading, writing, listening, and speaking: whole-class, small-group, and independent areas (include a sketch of your classroom) 6.  daily routines for Morning Work or Morning Jobs 7.  activities for independent/small-group work (work boards, activity charts, etc.) 8.  other materials, curriculum topics, or classroom routines that support literacy learning Wednesda y 9-9-16 Read Articles ( ON MOODLE) We will then return to your Classroom Community Chart. Add any new thoughts, ideas or questions based on the readings and review of important terms. Bring your chart to class on Wednesday. •  Early Literacy Development Part:1 | 2 | 3 (PDF) Morrow, L. M., and E. Asbury. "Current Practices in Early Literacy Development." In Gambrell, L. B., et al., eds. Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. 2d ed. 43-63. New York, N.Y.: The Guilford Press, 2003. • Ford, M. P., and M. F. Opitz. "Using Centers to Engage Children During Guided Reading Time: Intensifying Learning Experiences Away From the Teacher." The ReadingTeacher 55, no. 8 (2002): 710-717.


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