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psychology of learning

by: Renee Kisic

psychology of learning 407

Marketplace > Coastal Carolina University > Psychology > 407 > psychology of learning
Renee Kisic
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Chapter 2 Study Guide
Principles of Learning
Dr. Bernard Albiniak
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Renee Kisic on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 407 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Bernard Albiniak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Learning in Psychology at Coastal Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 2 Study Guide functional relationship: the relationship between changes in an independent variable and changes in a dependent variable (cause and effect relationship) *behaviorists are typically interested in discovering functional relationships in changes in environment events and changes in behavior appetitive stimulus: an event that an organism will seek out; food is an appetitive stimulus when hungry aversive stimulus: an event that an organism will avoid motivating operation: any procedure that affects the appetitiveness or aversiveness of an event establishing operation: a procedure that increases the appetitiveness or aversiveness of an event (deprivation of food) abolishing operation: a procedure that decreases the appetitiveness or aversiveness of an event (satiation of food) contiguity: closeness or nearness temporal contiguity: the extent to which events occur close together in time spatial contiguity: the extent to which events are situated close to each other in space contingency: a predictive (or functional) relationship between two events, such that the occurrence of one event predicts the probable occurrence of another behavioral definitions should be unambiguous Recording Methods: 1 rate of response: one of the most popular measures; the frequency with which a response occurs in a certain period of time (number of words written in 1 hour) cumulative recorder: a classic device that measures the total number of responses over time and provides a graphic depiction of the rate of behavior (the steeper the line, the higher the rate of response) intensity: the force or magnitude of the behavior (amount of saliva that pavlovs dog produced) duration: the length of time that an individual repeatedly or continuously performs a behavior (amount of study/practice time each week) speed: the length of time it takes for an episode of behavior to occur from start to finish (the length of time it takes for a rat to run through a maze from the start box to the goal box) three classic mazes: Hampton Court, T-maze, Straight Alley maze latency: the length of time required for a behavior to begin (number of days it takes for a student to start a term paper) interval recording: the measurement of whether or not a behavior occurs during each interval within a series of continuous intervals (observe to see if any aggressive behaviors occurred in a 10 minute interval; count number of 10 minute intervals that had aggressive behavior) time-sample recording: measures whether or not a behavior occurs during each interval within a series of discontinuous (spaced apart) intervals (record whether an aggressive behavior occurs within a certain 10 minute interval they decide to observe) topography: the physical form of the behavior (how a rat presses the lever for food) number of errors: any behavior in which responses can be categorized as right or wrong (number of wrong turns a rat takes before finding the end to the maze) 2 interobserver reliability: the number of intervals during which the observers agree divided by the total number of intervals Research Designs descriptive research: gathering information about a behavior and the circumstances within which it occurs naturalistic observation: systematically observing and recording the occurrence of a behavior in a natural environment experimental research: one or more independent variables are systematically varied to determine their effect on a dependent variable group designs: (most common) manipulation of one or more independent variables across groups of subjects factorial design: examination of the effects of two ore more independent variables across groups of subjects comparative design: type of group design in which different species constitute one of the independent variables (use rats to test for dogs) single subject designs: require only one or a few subjects to conduct an entire experiment (single case, small-n) simple comparison (AB) design: behavior in a baseline condition is compared to a behavior in a treatment condition the baseline of a behavior is the normal frequency of the behavior that occurs before some type of intervention reversal design (ABA): repeated alternations between a baseline phase and a treatment phase multiple baseline design: a treatment is instituted at successive points in time for two or more persons, settings, or behaviors 3 changing criterion design: the effect of the treatment is demonstrated by how closely the behavior matches a criterion that is being systematically altered 4


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