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CSU CHICO / Biological Sciences / BIOL 323 / What is the most basic meaning of the hypothesis?

What is the most basic meaning of the hypothesis?

What is the most basic meaning of the hypothesis?

Description

School: California State University Chico
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: Biology of Sex
Professor: Rebecca brunelli
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Bio323, study, guide, evolution, cells, Chromosomes, Mitosis, Meiosis, DNA, and Science
Cost: 50
Name: BIOL 323 Study Guide, Exam One
Description: This is the corrected study guide.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
6 Pages 78 Views 2 Unlocks
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BIO 323 Study Guide: Exam One


What is the most basic meaning of the hypothesis?



Science:

∙ Basic Concepts

o Hypothesis- Educated guess

o Prediction

o Independent Variable- The one thing that you change

o Dependent Variable- The one thing you measure

o Controlled Variable- The rest, stays the same

o Control Group- The normal/usual thing or group

o Experimental Group- The group that receives something ∙ Proof: In science, there is no “real” scientific proof (nothing is 100%  proven)

∙ Theory: So much evidence for it, we know it’s the case

∙ Significance: Had a hypothesis and It was supported

∙ Double -Blind: Both the researcher and the subjects don’t know their  treatments


What is the most basic meaning of the independent variable?



Don't forget about the age old question of What dynasty build the great wall of china?

∙ Single-Blind: Only the subjects don’t know their treatments ∙ Open-Label: Both the researcher and subjects know their treatments ∙ Replication: Don’t do one study and say that it’s complete, keep doing  it

∙ Designing a Scientific Experiment:  

o Study Question

o How many subjects will you need?

o Time frame?

o How will you conduct the experiment?

o Dependent Variable?

o Independent Variable?

o Controlled Variable?

o Control and Experimental Groups?

o Double-blind, Single-blind, or Open-label?

o How will you collect your data?

o Conclusion?


What is the most basic meaning of the dependent variable?



Evolution:

∙ Genetic variation:  

o Happens within a species

o Evolution needs it

∙ Genotype: Genetic code in cells We also discuss several other topics like What law prevents companies from being anti-competitive?
If you want to learn more check out Goods and services refer to what?

∙ Phenotype: Things you can observe, physically and behaviorally ∙ Adaptations:

o Feature common in a population because it provides some  improved functions

o Produced by Natural Selection

o Adaption Examples:

 Mimicry of Leaves

 Allelopathy

∙ Evolution: The process in which populations of organisms diversify from their ancestors

∙ Evidence for Evolution:  

o Paleontology

 Fossils

 Transitional Fossils Don't forget about the age old question of What is the study of humans?

o Biogeography  

 Study of the past and present geographical distribution of  organic  

 Similar species can be traced to an origin

o Comparative Anatomy

 Shows us how organisms adapt ancestral features to new  uses  

 Homologous- Similar anatomy, different ancestors

 Analogous- Similar functionality, different anatomy

o Vestigial Structures

 Things that were an adaptation for our ancestor, but now  are not used anymore

 Examples: appendix, goosebumps, tail bone, palmer reflex o Developmental Biology/Embryology  

 Study the embryos of different species and see how related species go through development  

o Genetics/Genomics, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry  Look at genetics of modern organisms

∙ Evolutionary Mechanisms

o Mutations:

 A change in the DNA

 A source of genetic variation

 Why does it happen?

∙ DNA copy mistake Don't forget about the age old question of When did america start celebrating the 4th of july?

∙ External influences

 Mutations are RANDOM (natural selection IS NOT)

 Somatic Mutations:

∙ Occur in non-reproductive cells

∙ Not passed to offspring

∙ Does not affect evolution

 Germ-line Mutations: We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between task orientation and ego orientation?

∙ Occur in reproductive cells

∙ Can pass to offspring

∙ Does affect offspring

 Single Germ-line Mutations Cause:

∙ Cause no, small, or large changes to the phenotype

o Natural Selection

 Charles Darwin: Credited with the idea of Natural selection  Genetic Variation

∙ Individuals within a species vary

 Genetic differences are heritable  

 Descent with modification- a type of mutation

 Common Descent:

∙ All life on Earth has descended from a common  

ancestor

 Artificial Selection: Imposed by humans

 Natural Selection: Naturally occurring  

 “Survival of the fittest”

∙ Not an accurate term

∙ Gives the idea that only the fittest survive

∙ The strongest and fastest aren’t necessarily the ones to survive  

∙ To be fit in an evolutionary sense, it’s important to  succeed in their environment

 Natural Selection IS NOT random (Mutations ARE random)  Speciation:  

∙ When new species arise by natural selection

 Isolation:

∙ Geographical  

o Rivers, mountains, distances, etc.

o Continental drift

∙ Ecological  

o Geographic ranges of two species overlap, but  

occupy different habitats  

∙ Temporal

o Breeding at different times

o Seasonal or daily

∙ Mechanical

o Physical differences prevent mating

o Failure of gametes (sperm cells/eggs) to fuse

∙ Behavioral

o Differences in courtship behavior, songs,  

nesting, etc.

 Types of Speciation:

∙ Anagenesis- One species evolves into another  

species

∙ Cladogenesis- Either stays the same or evolves into a new species

o Extreme Cladogenesis: Adaptive Radiation

o Migration/Gene Flow

 Another source of genetic variation

 Any movement of genes from one population to another o Genetic Drift

 By chance, some individuals may leave more descendants   It happens to all populations

 Entirely random  

Cells, Chromosomes, DNA, and Genes

∙ Why is sex important?

o Sexual reproduction gives us new combination of genes o Can also break up beneficial combinations of genes

∙ DNA chromosomes are found in the nucleus of the cell

∙ Humans have 23 kinds of chromosomes  

o Two of each kind of chromosome

o 46 total chromosomes/23 pairs total

o 46 chromosomes in every cell (except red blood cells and sex  cells)

∙ Every gene we have lives in every cell in our body (except red blood  cells)

∙ Every species has a different number of chromosomes

∙ A greater/lesser number doesn’t mean more/less complex ∙ Sex Cells:

o Gamete (egg): 23 chromosomes

o Gamete (sperm): 23 chromosomes

o First cell: zygote (46 chromosomes/23 pairs)

∙ Haploid: total number of pairs (ex. Humans have 23)

∙ Diploid: total number of chromosomes (ex. Humans have 46) ∙ Karyotype: inventory of chromosomes lined up in order of size ∙ Homologous Pairs:  

o Two chromosomes that match

o Humans have 23 homologous pairs

o Match in genes and size

∙ Locus: address on the chromosome where the gene lives ∙ Allele: different versions of a gene

∙ Capital letter=always dominant

∙ Lowercase letter=always recessive

∙ Homozygous Dominant: two dominant alleles

∙ Homozygous Recessive: two recessive alleles

∙ Heterozygous: one dominant and one recessive allele

∙ Incomplete Dominance: heterozygous phenotype is intermediary blend ∙ Co-dominance: doesn’t get the blend of two phenotypes, but instead  get a pattern of both phenotypes

∙ Multiple alleles

o Some genes have more than two alleles

o Each individual can only have two alleles

∙ Polygenic Traits: multiple genes for one trait

Mitosis and Meiosis  

 Mitosis:  

o Happens in all the diploid cells in the body

o Two new daughter cells, each containing an identical copy of DNA o Stages (IPMAT)

 Interphase

∙ DNA not condensed yet

∙ DNA starts to replicate

 Prophase

∙ DNA condenses

∙ Nucleus disintegrates

∙ Sister chromatids become visible

∙ Sister chromatids joined by centromeres

∙ Spindles form

 Metaphase

∙ Chromosomes line up at equator

∙ Spindles attach to centromeres

 Anaphase

∙ Spindles pull chromatids apart to opposite ends

 Telephase

∙ DNA “uncondenses”, nucleus reforsm

 Meiosis:

o Happens in reproductive cells only

o Haploid gametes are created

o Stages (IPMATPMAT)

 Interphase

 Prophase I

∙ Nucleus Disintegrates  

∙ DNA condenses

∙ Sister chromatids become visible  

∙ Spindles start to form

∙ Homologous pairs

∙ Recombination occurs

 Metaphase I

∙ Homologous pairs line up at equator

 Anaphase I

∙ Spindles pull each one of homologous pairs apart

 Telephase I

∙ Nuclear envelope reforms

∙ Cells now in two haploid cells

∙ Still too much DNA

 Prophase II

∙ DNA condenses again

∙ Spindles start to form

∙ Nuclear envelope disintegrates  

 Metaphase II

∙ Individual chromosomes line up on equator

∙ Not homologous pairs (key difference from  

Metaphase I)

 Anaphase II

∙ Sister chromatids are pulled apart

 Telophase II

∙ Nucleus reforms

∙ Cytokinesis splits the cells

∙ Four haploid cells

 Sister Chromatids: Pair of chromosomes

 Recombination: gives us variation in our offspring

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