Hist 1060 exam 1 study guide
Hist 1060 exam 1 study guide history 1060
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Justin Larremore on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to history 1060 at University of North Texas taught by Kristin Bocchine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see World History 1600 to Present in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Hist 1060 Exam 1 Study Guide The first exam covers Ming/Qing China, Tokugawa Japan, Yi Korea, Islamic Empires, and whatever is covered in the lectures Sept. 1923. The History topic, What is History?, is not really necessary for the exam. Ming and Qing China Ming dynasty came after Yuan (Mongol) dynasty and was a huge shift in Chinese tradtitions. After the Yuan, the Ming wanted to fix all the foreign problems they caused and sparked a surge in NeoConfucianism The Ming were the great wall builders and constructed a massive wall system to keep out the northern barbarians Ming Government Autocratic emperor Bureaucratic court Divided China into provinces to be governed Hierarchal system Ming Economy Gradual movement from farming society to merchant trading Cash crops became popular for sale Movement from Yuan paper to silver Very strong market economy NeoConfucianism in Ming Women’s roles start to shrink Lost ability to inherit and own property Footbinding became a mark of beauty and Chinese identity Women were socially immobile Ming and the Europeans Europeans start moving towards China looking for trade Trying to find markets and goods Cut out the Islamic middlemen Trying to Christianize China The Ming needed silver from the Europeans Europeans in China Portugal was first to reach China China limited access until 1557 Traded between Japan and China The Dutch started to push out the Portuguese Portuguese=Catholic tried to convert Chinese Dutch=Protestant did not try to convert Chinese End of Ming Dynasty Factionalism court officials divided and fought amongst themselves, this led to internal struggles Natural Disasters and Internal Rebellions were thought to be a sign of the Emperor losing the Mandate of Heaven Uprising led by Li Zicheng took Beijing and Ming army and Manchus had to join forces to retake the city Manchus Consolidation of nomadic tribes north of China, established the Kingdom of Manchuria, encroached on Chinese territory and took Beijing, they did not relinquish control of the city and instated their own government over the Ming Qing Dynasty Expanded empire through military conquest Faced Zunghar Mongols to the west Economy flourished with expanded trade Nine Pillars of the Qing 1. Ethnic Balance five people of the Qing Different levels of importance and social status Manchu, Mongol, Tibetan, Muslims, Han Han (Chinese) was largest majority but least significant 2. Mandate of Heaven Ideology Emperor can rule as long as he is blessed by heaven Government was responsible for basic needs of citizens Motivated government to be good to prevent rebellions 3. Family Ideology Neoconfucianism Parallel conception of family and society Ordered family meant ordered society 4. Separate Spheres for genders Different standards for men and women Han women had very low status while Manchu women had high Different rules applied to different people 5. Civil Service Examination System A way to test qualifications of people for bureaucracy Many levels of tests Mainly rich people qualified b/c education was expensive 6. Civil Administration Hierarchal levels of administration Censorship tests to root out corruption Advisors to emperor, bureaucrats, governors, local elites, etc. 7. Ritual and Religion Qienergy Yin and Yang balanced energy forces in nature Many gods of various purposes, somewhat religious freedom 8. Military Divided into a Manchu army and a Han army Both were hereditary forces, soldiers begot more soldiers 9. Hydraulic Engineering Systems Qing very good at using water, dams, irrigation, etc. Military would use them sometimes to flood cities Qing and Foreign Trade Qing needed silver for economy Foreigners limited to one port at Canton Heavily taxed foreign trade Jesuits introduced western science and technology to Qing English East India Company British interests in trade increased Took over India and were subjected to Canton Port restrictions Lord Macartney mission directly to Qianlong emperor to negotiate trade Diplomatic problems prevented full access until the Opium Wars Tokugawa Japan Sengoku Period (14671573) Warring states of Japan Chaos among rulers Ruling class in upheaval, new Daimyo have smaller domains but more power Trade with Europeans encouraged European Influences Portugal traded silver from Japan for goods from China Jesuits introduced new technology Guns and gunpowder Period of Unification 15341600 3 different leaders who gradually brought together a fragmented Japan Oda Nobunaga begins unification by usurping Ashikaga shogunate, opened up trade to Portuguese Toyotomi Hideyoshi used a land survey to tax people, Great Sword Hunt of 1588 took away swords from nonsamurai, divided Japan into permanent social classes, Invaded Korea in 1592 and 1597 Tokugawa Ieyasu completed unification, founded Tokugawa Shogunate, established a centralized power Characteristics of Tokugawa Rule Indirect Rule through Daimyo, gave the loyal daimyo control of the more important lands Alternate Attendance maintained control of daimyo through a hostage system, half the year their families had to live in the capital Semiisolationists closed trade to Portuguese, opened 1 port to Dutch More distinct social classes Confucianstyle hierarchy Tokugawa Economy 17 Centur boom Invested money in agriculture, cash crops for sale 18 mid 19 century the economy stagnates The economy begins to fail Tokugawa Culture NeoConfucianism intellectual culture Martial Arts With no wars to fight, stylized fighting forms for performance become popular Kabuki Theater Prostitution Govt. regulated, girls trained in cultural arts not just sex Opening of Tokugawa Japan Elites start to think about defending against foreigners Growing threats put pressure on Japan Russia, Britain, USA Opium Wars encourage Japan to not resist militarily Commodore Perry from USA forced Japan to sign Harris Treaty opening ports to US trade End of Tokugawa Crisis of loyalty between emperor and Shogun Internal power struggles Failing economy Meiji emperor took over in 1867 and establishes absolute rule Korea Yi Dynasty (13921910) Chinese influence, tributary to Ming, Chinesestyle govt. NeoConfucianist culture, Buddhism loses popularity Korean Identity Han’gul Korean language given its own written form Similar social system and government to Ming China Bureaucracy, aristocracy, king, factions Social System Yangban upper class Chungin middle class Yangmin peasants, similar to serfs Ch’onmin slaves Economy under NeoConfucianism trade not promoted Military not innovative or large After Qing takeover, became a tributary to Qing Economy improved under Qing with trade opened up Violent Response to Westernization Tonghak “Eastern Learning” Movement to reject western ways and restore Korea to ancient glory Vietnam Dai Viet Northern Vietnamese kingdom Chinesestyle government Most people were Hindu or Buddhist Subsistence farming culture Women had many rights compared to other Asian cultures Champa Southern Vietnamese kingdom Separate state, later incorporated into Dai Viet Le Dynasty 14281789 Tributary to Ming, ruled from Hanoi Administered using Chinese model Eventually became commercialized and urbanized Rebellions and Foreign Intervention France got involved to help Le dynasty win back control after a rebellion France eventually gained control of Vietnam over time and annexed it officially in 1885, Vietnam was never again independent until after Vietnam War China, Korea, and Japan Global East Asian Interactions Ming used Korea as a defensive wall against Japan Japan wanted to attack Korea to get to China First Great Asian War Japan invaded Korea twice to get at China and both times was pushed back First war in East Asia to use guns, cannons and modern weapons Ming Dynasty went bankrupt b/c of the war Korea is devastated by the war and does not recover Western imports of guns and gunpowder increase exponentially Islamic Empires Islam founded by Muhammad in 622 5 Pillars of Islam 1. Statement of belief in Allah and Muhammad 2. Prayer five times a day facing Mecca 3. Giving to the poor, tithe 4. Ramadan fasting 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime After Muhammad, Islam spreads quickly through Middle East, Africa, Persia, India, and Spain through conquest and trade Umayyad Dynasty Immediately followed Muhammad’s death, conquered all the way to Spain Abbasid Dynasty United many different people under Islamic culture Seljuk Turks Took over Abbasid, challenged Byzantine power in the region Crusades are called b/c of their incursions Mongol Invasion The Mongols put Islamic empires on the defensive for the first time Ottoman Turks Fled from Mongols and settled in Anatolia (Turkey) Sultan Osman Made the Ottomans into an empire Ottomans Mehmet II Conquered Constantinople, officially ended the Byzantine empire Direct result of conquest: Economic Muslims now controlled trade routes to the East Cultural brought the Muslims in close proximity with Europeans Military first major use of cannons in a battle Political gave Ottomans momentum to continue conquering and expand their empire Suleiman the Magnificent Wanted to unify Eastern and Western people under Islam Extended Ottoman empire into central Europe and across Mediterranean Got Ottomans involved in European politics and wars Law code that ruled all subjects fairly Cultural renaissance under Suleiman After Suleiman Successors of Suleiman not near as qualified or successful Dutch and French took over Indian Ocean trade system Ottoman Society Multiethnic, intercontinental state Promoted based on merit and accomplishments Sultan had to be strict follower of Islamic law Ottomans and the Europeans Ottoman initiative to conquer lost by 1700s Central authority declined, territory lost to Europeans Military stagnated and started to fall apart Ottomans became the “sick man of Europe” Safavid Persia: A Shi’ite State One of the first modern blended societies, ruled over many different regions and peoples Shi’ite Islam main focus of Safavid Started as religious movement then emerged as an empire Shi’ite Islam Very conservative Islam Believed in Mahdi, a future ruler descended from Muhammad Did not trust Sunni interpretations of Quran Sunni Islam More moderate Islam Far more followers, more widespread No Mahdi or future messiah figure Literal translation of Quran End of Safavid Persia Empire worked well with decentralization, when it centralized, it fell apart Corruption and inefficiency rampant through centralized government Islamic Trade Dominance Loss of Constantinople sparked European exploration Global economy gradually shifted to Europe Islamic empires decline and their territory seized by European powers India North Mughal Empire (Muslim) South Vijayanagara Empire (Hindu) Hinduism Set of practices/beliefs connected with various religions of subcontinent Polytheistic, reincarnation, Karma, Samsara cycle, Moksha Moksha liberation from reincarnation cycle Caste system set up social order Brahmins priests, highest caste Kshatriyas warriors, nobles Vaishyas merchants Sudras farmers, peasants Hariyans Untouchables, outside the caste system, very lowest Buddhism Originated as a response to Hinduism, rejected Caste system Taught the “middle way” as enlightenment path 4 Noble Truths 2 main factions of Buddhism Hinayana more conservative, focused on teachings of Buddha Mahayana more liberal, blended local beliefs into Buddhism Jainism Also a response to Hinduism, extreme ascetism and very strict religious practices Denial of self to achieve enlightenment
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