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BGSU - BIOL 3320 - Class Notes - Week 1

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BGSU - BIOL 3320 - Class Notes - Week 1

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background image Heart Anatomy  •   Four chambers of the heart, humans and mammals have 4 chambers two  ventricles and two atrium   o   Pericardium: (sac, smooth) can get infection, inflammation, pain  discomfort in chest  o   Epicedium: Surface of the heart is a thin layer of connective tissue called  the (smooth)  o   Myocardium: thickest layer of the heart, muscle of the heart 
o   Endocardium: thin lining of connective tissue inside each chamber of the 
heart, keeps blood where it belongs inside the heart      Pulmonary Pump v.s. Systemic Pump  •   Outside vs Inside  o   Atrium: first part of the heart where blood enters 
o   Auriclesflaps on the outside of the heart  
o   Atriacavity on the inside of each of the upper chambers  
  Ventricles Out v.s. Ventricles In  •   Valves: Bring blood to the heart, no oxygen in blood, prevent blood from flowing  backwards  o   Atrioventricular Valves: one on right and one on left  §    Right Side: Three Flaps (cusps)   •   Right Atrioventricular Value: is a tricuspid value structure  §    Left Side: – Two Flaps  •    Left Atrioventricular Valve: is a bicuspid value structure,  also known as the mitrovalve (because popes hat is called a 
o   Semilunar Valves: located between large blood vessel and the valve  §    Right Side: Pulmonary Artery and Pulmonary Valve   §    Left Side: Aorta Aortic Valve   
•   VesselBrings blood to the heart  o   Right Side  §    Superior and Inferior Vena Cava  o   Left Side  §    Pulmonary Veins  •   Artery: Carries oxygenated blood away from heart   o   Right Side  §    Pulmonary Artery (Trunk): Carries blood from the right ventricle  to the lungs to get oxygen   o   Left Side  §    Aorta: main artery that supplies oxygenated blood to to system  §    Coronary Arteries: located in heart, supply oxygenated blood  o   Cardiac Veins 
background image §    Coronary Sinus: receives blood from coronary veins and empty’s  blood into the right atrium    
Heart Pathology    Valve Problems  •   Can have replacement of heart valves from a donated heart, or completely  artificial ones made of Teflon and stainless steel  •   Mitral Stenosis: Left atrial ventricular/bicuspid value. Caused by a rheumatic  fever, causing fluid in joints. This will cause valve to swell and decrease size of 
opening in the value, slowing blood flow rate through opening and may 
compromise blood circulation. 
•   Mitral Prolapse: Occurs when some tendons/heart strings break and the value  turns inside out and blood back flows into the atrium, compromising circulation.   o   Heart Murmur: blood flowing backwards in a direction that is not normal,  blood is going back through value  •   Torn Cusp: Valve flap rips and there is blood again flowing backwards to atrial  cavity    
Coordination Problems 
•   Pacemaker Damage/Bundle Branch Block  Congenital Abnormalities  •   Fetal Structures Remain:  
•   Foramen Ovale: opening between right atrium and left atrium, allows blood to 
pass through atriums while bypassing the right ventricle. Oxygen comes from 
mom as a fetus because we do not breathe and we do not need to pump to/from 
o   Patent Foramen OvaleFails to close when born, ‘hole in heart’  •   Ductus Arteriousus: In the fetus, blood can bypass pulmonary circulation, goes  from trunk directly into aorta, bypasses the lungs  o   Patent ductus Arteriousus: Simple to fix with a stitch  
o   Changes to ligamentous arteriosum when fetus is born and serves little 
purpose  Problems with Blood Supply  •   Coronary Occlusion/Blockage  o   Atherosclerosis: Build up of fatty tissue which obstructs artery  §    Atheroma is the tissue that builds up, rich in cholesterol 

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School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Professor: Lee Meserve
Term: Fall 2015
Name: Notes on the Heart
Description: This section of notes contains Heart Anatomy, Heart Pathology, Heart Physiology, and Homeostasis. These notes are based on the outline provided by Professor Meserve, with information from lectures and the text.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
5 Pages 46 Views 36 Unlocks
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