HIST 1376 study guide
HIST 1376 study guide 1376
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Yousef Afifi on Saturday March 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1376 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Curry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 280 views. For similar materials see U.S History in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/28/15
HIST 1376 02232015 Federalists loved England and hated France Jeffersonians followers of Thomas Jefferson liked France and federalists hated jeffersonians as a result Federalists saw the mob as a threat The Federalists wanted to restrict the danger of the mob by making certain the most economic interests were tied to the new government by economic selfinterest These nancial programs were proposed by Alexander Hamilton and were outlined by 2 goals The rst outline was ensuring the prosperity of the able bodied and the second was reinforcing the ef ciency of the plan Three main factors of the plan Fund national debt at par level par level pertains to the paying of debt at the full face value of each currency billThis would be funded by the funding for the creation of new national bonds to be sold to speculators and businessmen in order to better Americas credit as well as increase their economic ties to the government Assume state debts this debt would also be paid off at par level The creation of a national bank this would regulate the ow of capital and stimulate the economy Although these were economically sound goals hamiltons goals were ultimately political He believed that if the plan worked there would be consequences Summary Alexander Hamilton was a realistic political leader who symbolized a federalist philosophy of government and built a strong and effective political party The French revolution in 1789 resulted in the appointment of the directorate as the central governing body of France The directorate wanted to reacquire the land it lost from Britain in the FrenchIndian war The French appointed indian chiefs as generals in the army brought the Louisiana purchase from Spain and several American vessels were captured by France By 1797 France and America were nearly at war In October 1797 the quotXYZ Affair occurred The XYZ AffairMillions for defense not one cent for tribute John Adams attempted to resolve the situation by sending 3 diplomats to France After arriving in Paris 3 French of cials named X Y and Z demanded a 250000 bribe a public apology and a 1000000 loan from America to merely acquire a meeting with the foreign minister After the American of cials refused they reported the happening back to the president John Adams president was furious and he reported the situation to congress The congress declared millions for defense not one cent for tributequot This increased the popularity of the Federalist party and decreased the popularity of the Jeffersonians The event prompted congress to pass the Naturalization and Aliensedition acts in 1798 US History 022 52015 Some basic Jeffersonian values limited government accountability of public officials dispersal of powers Respect of individual privacy Jefferson s political philosophy Belief in natural rights Faith in reason Idealism a belief in progress optimism hope for perfection the necessity of education for men Jefferson was in uenced by his environment he grew up in a prosperous setting in Virginia Jefferson s Social Attitudes Faith in the yeoman farmers Faith in independent citizens A fear of the urban working class A fear of slaves Blind to the rising industrial revolution Jefferson was a republican The origins of the Jeffersonian republicans include the fierce opposition of Alexander Hamilton s economic plan arguing it did not benefit the poor Major Political characteristics of Jeffersonianism Were Moderate Nationalistsand believed that the Hamiltonian nationalists were attempting to make the government too strong Jefferson believed that Congress only had the authority to act upon enumerated powers and that implied powers were inadmissible Limited Government quotthat government is best which governs least The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions emphasis on states rights and written to argue the unconstitutionality of the alien and sedition acts Virginia resolutions Written by James Madison Madison argued the constitution was a compact among states States could decide whether federal law was constitutional Kentucky resolutions Written anonymously by Thomas Jefferson One state could decide whether or not a federal law was constitutional Consequences Although both States passed the law no other states agreed and none of them passed it However the resolutions were signi cant because they raised an important constitutional question Which government was soverign the state of the federal Also became precedents for later states rights arguments The South Represent high tide of Jeffersonian insistence on doctrine of states rights History notes 03112015 The age of Andrew Jackson was the celebration of the common man a time when the power and in uence of the common man were increasing Selfreliant individualism is at the heart of Americas belief system The related currents of democracy and individualism were running strong during the age of Andrew Jackson Jacksonians wanted equal access for all to economic opportunities The Whig Party A political party developed in opposition to Jacksonian Democrats A party of respectability and businessmen A party of those who did not care much about the democratic leadership the party was dominated by urban and commercial interests from all sections Growers of large stable crops from the South It was a party of established special interest groups and opposed Jackson s abuse of presidential power They supported an alliance between business and government The political leader of the party was Senator Henry Clay Kentucky 3 essential features of the American System A protective tariff to encourage growth of industry provide home market for farmers and provide revenue for government A federally funded internal improvements program A national bank to bring commerce The goal behind this plan was to provide national selfsufficiency and inter sectional harmony The northeast would provide manufactured goods while the South and West would provide staple products raw materials and food stuffs Consequences Prosperity and progress for all Class harmony Order Henry Clay Considered democracy a threat to prosperity rights Not concerned with workers an dirt farmers Was concerned with manufacturers and planters Found virtue in cities not among farmers Daniel Webster Massachusetts His central political was power follows property He believed those with economic power should also have political power The Whig party in Jacksonian America had to survive politically in America and as a result Began to talk and act as if they too were primarily concerned with the general welfare of the people Henry Clay exaggerated his humble origins He called himself the quotmill boy of the slashesquot Daniel Webster apologized for not having been born in a log cabin The presidential election of 1840 The candidates were democrat and incumbent Martin Van Buren and the Whigs were General Henry Harrison and John Tyler History notes March 23 2015 Signi cance of 1840 election The Whigs learned better than the democrats 80 percent of eligible voters voted The nal emergence of a fully developed American party system with vigorous twoparty politics The rst great quotimage campaignquot Conclusions After 1840 politics had a broad popular base Ideals pf individualism and democracy seemed here to stay Belief in individualism often masked conformity In politics it was often not democracy but a parody of democracy However Americans believed they were democratic and individualistic John Quincy Adams quotwhere will it all endquot Topic 8 Racism and Slavery Racism Any attitude action or institutional structure which subordinates a person or a group because of their color People were discriminated against because the white man deemed other people as quotnot white enoughquot Attitudes actions and institutional structures such as slavery can also be forms of racism Overt racism was a central part of American life Racist laws Behavior Patterns Living conditions Distribution of political power thought patterns Cultural viewpoints Figures and forms of speech The origins of American racism can be traced back to England The English believed Africans were inferior By the early 1800 s Americans almost de ned the United States as a white man s country and blacks were generally not included in this de nition Most whites were racist Most white Americans hardly ever gave a thought to black people and there is no evidence to support the claim that any racial group is superior to any other racial group The rst encounters between the English and the Africans occurred in the 1500 s Early English perceptions of Africans They were heathens Their culture was primitive Their skin color was black because it was the most obvious Many Englishmen placed blacks on a quotchain of beingquot between apes and human beings Some thought they were the products of bestiality Most Englishmen thought blacks were descendants of apes American inherited racial attitudes toward blacks from the English Thomas Jefferson on slavery Owned slaves but hated slavery He felt guilty His main concern seemed to be the effect of slavery on masters not on the slaves HoweverJefferson defended the Native Americans against charges of inferiority by European scientists This was because Jefferson considered Indians to be part of America and blacks were not Dred Scott vs Sanford 1857 Dred Scott was a slave who sued to obtain his freedom under the grounds that he became a freeman since he had went to a free territory The Supreme court dismissed the case ruling that he was not a citizen and therefore could not sue in federal court The Supreme Court also ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional They said Congress could not exclude slavery from the territories History Notes March 25 2015 Justice Taney ruled that blacks were not meant to have any rights which citizens of the United States had in the Dred Scott case Not all white Americans agreed with Jefferson or Taney about the sociallegal conditions of blacks However most Americans when thinking about blacks agreed that they were an inferior race Slavery and racism were at odds with several components of American culture sense of mission to extend liberty tension with democracyindividualism If you were white you could not be a slave If you were black you probably were a slave In the south if you were black you were assumed to be a slave unless you could prove otherwise Slavery did not exist in England Institution of slavery was not imported Slavery was created in the colonies The first slaves were sold in the colonies in Jamestown in 1619 Legal aspects of American Slavery A slave was chattela form of property One became a slave by being brought into the country or by being born one Slaves had no civil political or legal rights Slavery existed almost entirely south of the MasonDixon line Slavery became the sout s peculiar institution It became America s most sectional issue Slaves were not distributed evenly throughout the south Slavery was profitable only for a few Most white Southerners thought slavery was necessary for the economy of the south However most white southerners thought slavery was profitable for the entire south Slavery was seen as a way to control an inferior race and to maintain white supremacy 5 principles necessary to maintain control Convince the slave the principle that what was good for the master was good for the slave Make the slave feel helpless and completely dependent on the master Make the slave feel inferior Establish and maintain strict discipline over the slave Use punishment to keep the slave in awe of owners power The moonlight and magnolia school of thought stated that slaves were happy and content as they had gotten used to their way of life Most slaves abhorred slavery The Nat Turner revolt August 1831 Turner was a good slave who lived in Tidewater Virginia on his masters plantation He developed a messianic complex which led him to believe he was chosen by God to deliver slaves from bondage The revolt last 48 hours 70 slaves participated 60 whites were killed The south s bloodiest insurrection The revolt caused great fear to spread throughout the south the south to increase the severity of its slave codes Emancipation movement in the south to collapse The rebellion was crushed by the Virginia militia and Turner was captured tried and executed Effects of Slavery on Whites Made slave owners unfit to live in a free society Developed a persecution complex Gave nonslave owners restricted economic and employment opportunities Exposed all southern whites slave owners and nonslave owners to violence as an everyday way of life History Summary The Alien amp Sedition acts 1798 were designed to increase opposition to the republican party The Alien act discouraged settlements to America and less people emigrated there The Virginia and Kentucky compromises were designed by Jefferson to counter the alien act The acts were eventually repealed after Jefferson took office War of 1812 led to instability of financial markets and highlighted the main deficiencies of the United States including the banking sector transportation and financials The instability of the banking sector prompted congress to create a second national bank after the first bank s charter expired The overpopulation of Americans led to a great migration between 18001820 Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe and John Quincy Adams were all secretaries of state before they became president and they were all republicans Although the Republican party was the sole ruling party in America for a brief time it split apart in 1820 into the democratic republican party the democrats and the national republican party the Whigs The democratic republicans favored more Jeffersonian ideas of a free market economy with less government interference The Whigs wanted more federal oversight and a more centralized government The Monroe doctrine dictated that no other European power was to attempt to colonize any North American territory John Quincy Adams was the son of John Adams John Quincy Adams urged Andrew Jackson to accept responsibility for their actions against the Indians in Florida during the Seminole war
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