Chapter 1-3 Exam Study Guide
Chapter 1-3 Exam Study Guide CHEM 0110
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominique on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 0110 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Stanley Paul in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
General Chemistry Study Guide 9/23 Chapter 1 Law of Conservation of Mass – created by Antoine Lavoisier; mass remains constant during a chemical reaction The mass before the reaction = the mass after the reaction This principal is applied when we use the mass of a product to determine the mass of a reactant, for example. Maxwell and Boltzmann were the first to realize that temperature is related to kinetic energy. Prefixes Mega 10 6 M Kilo 10 3 K 1 Deci 10 d Centi 10 2 c 3 Milli 10 m Micro 10 6 Nano 10 9 N 12 Pico 10 p Units 2 Area m Volume m 3 Density Kg/m 3 Speed m/s Acceleration m/s2 Force 2 Kg m/s or Newton (N) Pressure Kg / ms or Pascal (Pa) Energy Kg m /s or Joule (J) Chapter 2 Atomic Theory – created by John Dalton; said that all things were made of atoms His theory has 4 postulates: 1. All matter is made from indivisible atoms 2. All elements are identical and have identical properties 3. Compounds are made of two or more elements in fixed proportions 4. Chemical reactions rearrange atoms to create new substances Pneumonic: Indigo IDs fix crates The first postulate was wrong because he did not account for the existence of atoms, and the seconds postulate was wrong because he did not know about isotopes. Important People J.J. Thompson – Cathode Ray Tube Experiment; discovered electrons and their mass to charge ratio Shot cathode rays and observed that the green beam bent towards the negative end of a magnet and away from the positive end, so there must be negatively charged particles (electrons). Since atoms have an overall neutral charge, there must be a positively charged particle (proton) to counteract the electrons. The beam is able to spin a lightweight wheel, so the electrons can generate force, which means that they have a mass (F=ma). Robert Millikan – Oil Drop Experiment; discovered the charge of electrons Watched how a charged drop of oil fell in the presence of a magnetic field, and now it fell without the presence of a magnetic field. He found the mass and the charge of the electron Ernest Rutherford – Gold Foil Experiment; the atom is mostly empty space and has a small positively charged nucleus surrounded my electrons. Shot alpha particles at gold foil and noticed that most went straight through, but some were deflected at an angle or almost completely backwards (the nuclei either would hit off each other or the alpha particles would be deflected from the other positively charged nuclei in the gold). He concluded that the atom was mostly empty space with a small, positively charged nucleus in the center that was surrounded by electrons. Alpha particles are hydrogen atoms that have lost their electrons. He created the nuclear model of the atom and disproved the plum pudding model. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev – created the first periodic table Isotopes Isotopes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons *CHANGING THE NUMBER OF PROTONS CHANGES THE ELEMENT, ALWAYS CHANGE THE NUMBER OF NEUTRONS OR ELECTRONS WHEN DEALING WITH ISOTOPES OR IONS atomic number →11 mass number = protons + neutrons atomic number = protons How to find the atomic mass: 1. Convert the % composition to a decimal 2. Multiply by its fractional abundance 3. Add contributions together Periodic Table Alkai metals Alkaline earth metals Transition metals Basic metals Semimetals Non metals Halogens Noble gasses Lanthanides Actinides Metal Non metal Metalloid Greek Prefixes 1 Mono 2 Di 3 Tri 4 Tetra 5 Penta 6 Hexa 7 Hepta 8 Octa 9 Nona 10 Deca Common Polyatomic Ions Chapter 3 Mass Percentage Mass of A= massof A∈thewhole ×100 massof thewhole Empirical formula – the formula written with the lowest whole number ratios Ex: Hydrogen peroxide’s molecular formula is H2O 2 and its empirical formula is HO. To find the multiple for the subscripts of the molecular formula you need the empirical formula with % composition and the molecular weight. n= molecular weight empiricalweight Limiting reactant – the reactant that is completely consumed, which thereby stops the reaction Excess reactant – the reactant that will be left over Theoretical yield – the maximus product that could be made from a reaction (ideal) Percent yield PercentYield= actualyield ×100 theorhetical yield
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