Comm 370 Exam 1 Study Guide
Comm 370 Exam 1 Study Guide Comm 370
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Rosenzweig on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 370 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Manuel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Relations in Public Relations at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
09/18/2016 ▯ Other Terms for PR: ▯ - PR gimmick or Ploy ▯ - Publicity stunt ▯ -Flacks (less flattering term used by the press “some PR flack wrote that”) ▯ - President Reagan’s reelection campaign took a negative story and turned it into something positive (spin) ▯ - Television (Sex and the City) portrays PR in a negative light ▯ ▯ PR vs. Journalism: -Both write in journalistic style, interview people, gather and analyze info, and do so with a deadline - PR can also be known as a journalist in residence - PR has a wider range of responsibilities - PR is more than just informing - PR has carefully segmented audiences - PR has many channels to reach their audience PR vs. Advertising: - Press release= info about event, person, group, or product which is directed to specialized external audiences and its primary functions is to create an environment in which the organization can thrive - Advertising is paid media directed to buyers of goods and services with a primary function to sell goods and services - Advertising has the disadvantage of cost such as the Wall Street Journal and a Super Bowl commercial PR vs. Marketing: - PR builds relationships and creates and maintains hospitable relationships and goodwill for the company Areas of PR: - Corporations, nonprofit, PR firms, government, education, entertainment, sports, travel, healthcare, international PR Personal attributes for someone in PR: - Writing, research, planner, problem-solving, business and economic competence, creativity, persuasiveness Evolution of PR: - Oldest press release was Rosetta Stone - PR Roots= Jesus of Nazareth and Apostles Peter, Paul… PR front men - PR doesn’t change but public opinion and the speed at which you have to react have changed - No comment on something in PR is a comment in itself - Publicity, Julius Ceaser (commentaries and Acta Diurna aka Daily Doings) - Middle Ages, Catholic Church and propaganda, Pope Gregory - Colonial Era, Boston Tea Party was one of the greatest publicity stunts of all time - Columbia University, King’s College issues first news release in 1758 - Sam Adams, founded sons of liberty and organized rallies and demonstrations in 1760s to protest the Stamp Act - 1800s Press Agent, “A person whose work is to get publicity for an individual, organization, etc.” - P.T Barnum, Great American Showman, Psuedo Event was happening that occurs for the purpose of being reported and was exaggerated publicity (Third Party Endorsement) - Press Agentry, hyping, ex: sports (march madness) and movies (James Bond) - PR is also prominent in other countries such as Germany, Philippines, and China, which is the fastest growing along with other Asian countries - Westward Expansion, railroads attracted settlers and in 1897 the railroad company first used the term public relations in a company listing along with Westinghouse Corporation being the first in-house publicity department - Women’s Christian Temperance Union provided information such as kits, fact sheet, and demonstrations with the leader Ida B. Wells - Publicity, Chicago Edison Company (Samuel Insull) and Amos Kendall was the first presidential secretary - Henry Ford used positioning and was the first automaker to double worker’s pay to $5 per day - PR counsel, Ivy Ledbetter was the first PR counselor and invented crisis management - George Creel Committee, WW1, instilled loyalty and confidence in the government and encouraged people to save food and buy liberty bonds - Edward L. Bernays was the father of PR and ‘spin’, ex: crystallizing public opinion allowed women to smoke in public, endorsed tobacco companies “lucky strikes” and “torches of freedom”, initiated the Thomas Edison Light’s Golden Jubilee to shut off power in Edison’s honor for his birthday, and Ivory Soap sculpting contest - Arthur W. Page decided that PR should have an active voice in higher management - Rex Harlow was the father of PR research, was a PR educator, and the founder of PRSA - Post WW2, PR explodes, nationwide firms, government expands PR efforts, better economy, growing population, cost efficient and was better than litigation, and won over management - The return of activism included that rise of seatbelt use and Civil Rights movement - McDonald’s, people were angry about their environmentally harmful practices and then listened to PR people to change their image to an environmentally friendly business - Johnson & Johnson, people were dying from Tylenol and Larry Foster created a good relationship with the media to help Models of PR: - Press Agentry/Publicity= one-way communication, mass media, and hype - Public Information= one-way communication of information, not always persuasive - Two way asymmetric= two way communication, understand audience in order to persuade - Two way symmetric= preferred model, two-way communication, mutual understanding, balanced research Ethics and Professionalism: - Ethics is the set of criteria by which decision are made about what is right and what is wrong - Morality concerns motivation and why people do things - From an ethical perspective motive is irrelevant not matter what the reason it is still a lie - In the corporate world it is expected that people do what is right and avoid federal sentencing guidelines - In terms if legality the motive is less important and lying under oath is a legal offense and in the case of Valerie Plame she was a CIA agent who was outed as a covert - Values are how we behave in a given situation and some examples are honest, openness, loyalty, fair-mindedness, respect, integrity and forthright communication - Staged events… Allison Barber was a former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Communications for Public Liaison and she helped former president Bush stage a teleconference with troops in Iraq - Front Groups are groups with a hidden agenda… for example: Forest Alliance of British Columbia, North westerners for More Fish, Friends of Eagle Mountain, and Citizens for a Free Kuwait (helping governments rally publics support troops for war - Four-way Test was used for ethical decision-making using the criteria: is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build goodwill and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned? - Three value orientations: absolutist= every decision is either right or wrong regardless of the consequences, existentialist= immediate rational choice governs, situationalist= causes the least harm or most good - PRSA Professional values include advocacy, honesty, expertise, independence, loyalty, and fairness - Improper conduct includes free flow of information, competition rumors, disclosure of information, safe guarding confidences, conflicts of interest, and enhancing the profession (specific violations include disclosing financial information, video news releases, internet PR) - In terms of ethics with media you must achieve trust, honesty, and if you lost credibility you lose usefulness - Office of strategic influence was designed to coordinate misinformation to assist military interests overseas (black ops) Communication Theory: - Communication theory is the movement from the “seat of the pants” (gut feeling) to thinking reasoned action - Theory explains how things work, why things happen, organization and explanation, prediction, and control - Theory definition: a prediction of how events and actions are related and is a statement about the relationship among variables - Theory building includes asking (starting point to explain a phenomenon), observing (descriptive research to understand the phenomenon), theorizing (developing reasons why the phenomenon occurs), and checking (involves research designed to test the hypothesis - Magic Bullet Theory began during WW1 when populations played major roles and helped mobilize loyalties, instill in citizens hatred for the enemy, and used propaganda to penetrate people’s defenses and transform their thoughts and actions with no ability to screen out the messages regardless of social status or education - Two-step theory was introduced by Paul Lazarsfeld, which got opinion leaders to pay attention to messages in the media and was an interactive process, which allowed the organization to inform and persuade as well as entertain and inform - Agenda Setting Function of Press was created by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw and was used in the 1968 presidential campaign and didn’t tell people what to think, but taught them what they should think about while building a good relationship with the press and media - Limited Effects Theory is when media have little effects on people because of many intervening factors - Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger)= people pay attention to media messages that do not threaten their established values and beliefs, dissonance leads to donation and donation leads to consonance - Framing is the selections of facts, themes, and idea that tell you what to think (ex: bottled water was made to look better than tap) - Hierarchy of Needs Theory= people pay attention to messages based on personal needs (physiological, safety, social, ego, self-actualization) - Conflict Theory is when people use conflict to gain a positive position in the market place of ideas using awareness behavior (create awareness to do something about it), latent readiness (people don’t always respond right away), and a triggering event (giving blood from a phone call for example) - Excellence Theory is based on four models * Press Agentry (least preferred and also known as publicity model) the goal is the make your organization or product known but not necessary using truthful statements because all publicity is good publicity and little to no research is done * Public Information Model is when you reports information journalistically and truth is essential (most of PR in government is in this category) and there is also a one way transfer of information and little or nor research, which is popular in corporations * Two-way Asymmetric Model (also known as Scientific Persuasion Model) when a PR person uses social science and research and surveys and polls * Two-way Symmetric uses mutual understanding and the PR person is intermediary between organization and its publics using research and social science to communicate but not persuade Public Relations Departments and Firms: - Goals of PR today are negotiation, compromise, two-way communication, and building relationships - Some large complex organizations are GE, Microsoft, and General Motors. These companies use PR in policymaking process and are sensitive to public attitudes and corporate reputation. - Some small-scale organizations use very little if any PR and little or no input into management decisions and policy information (pure technician mentality) - IABC Study showed that CEOs see PR as a good investment and reduces litigation costs - Some key attributes sought in head of communications are a general knowledge of business and knowledge of the company, experience and extensive relationships, team player, educator, ability to anticipate, and write well - Job levels in PR include entry-level technician, supervisor, director, supervisor - Job titles include manager, director, senior VP, VP, Chief Communications director - PR departments include media relations, investor relations, consumer affairs, government relations, community relations, marketing communications, and community communications - In terms of department size, a large company will typically have 24 members while a medium company will have about 9 - PR is a staff function… line managers have delegation authority, establish goals, hire and fire, and have direct influence over workers (but not final say). Staff people have little or no direct authority - Levels of influence include advisory (no obligation for line management to take recommendations or ask for them using Exxon oil spill for example), compulsory advisory (line managers are required to listen to staff experts recommendations and advice using Tylenol for example), and concurring authority is when both or all parties must concur before a project is approved using brochures for PSU for example) - Outsourcing uses outside expertise and supplemental staff during peak periods and includes writing, media relations, publicity, strategy, planning, and event planning - 25% of the budget is spent on outsourcing PR - 90% of PR companies outsource PR - Wal-Mart sponsors and NPR and awarded 500,000 dollars in scholarships to minority students in journalism programs that looked favorable on the part of the company - Advantages of working in a firm are objectivity, variety of skills and expertise, extensive research, offices nationwide, special problem solving, and credibility - Disadvantages of working in a firm are a lack of understanding of client’s business needs, no full-time commitment, need for prolonged briefing period, internal PR staff resentment of outside form, and requires strong direction from senior leaders Four-step Process of PR: - Research is the most powerful tool available to the applied practitioner - Research defines the problem or opportunity - Planning and Programming - Taking action and communicating - Evaluating the program - Do not imply a solution without research and don’t place blame - Research is the controlled objective and systematic gathering of information for the purpose of describing and understanding - The kind of research one does depends the subject, situation, time, budget, and perceived importance - When conducting research always examine historical records, the status quo (using polls and surveys), and test formal research questions - 3-5% of the budget is spent on research but some say it should be 10% - Before deciding on research design discuss if it should be outsourced and define audiences - 90% of organizational crises cause by internal operational problems - Secondary research is known as casual research and is stuff that is already in your file cabinet/things that are already published - Primary research is when you or someone else in your organization or a paid consultant collects information that addresses specific concern - Content analysis measures the amount of media coverage usually applied to new stories and can search for key words, company names, and key concepts - Focus group is an alternative to individual interviewing used in advertising, marketing, PR to gather qualitative data and can be used for pre-testing message themes - Qualitative identifies characteristics within publics important to campaign, subjective - Quantitative counts, measures, and analyzes in numeric terms and is reliable and objective
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