Gov Exam 1 Review
Gov Exam 1 Review Government 2306
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fatima Ghufran on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Government 2306 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Kevin Kearn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see State and Local Government in Government at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
GOVT 08/30-09/01 08/25 John Locke o Liberalism o Wrote books (in the 1960’s) Two Treatise of Government Political argument about human beings existing outside of govt before they form govt Individual person exists before become a part of society Individuals (who are naturally free) consent to government to protect their individual rights and if those individual rights are not protected then the individuals can overthrow or make changes to that govt to protect their rights Innate rights by nature Letter Concerning Toleration Theological argument Leave the things that we can’t agree on as indifferent Keep political and theological separate Old theological ideas of church: baptism, last supper, trinity, communion, way to salvation, merit/grace Originates concept of church and state Clergy has to be convinced to keep church and state separate o Clergy agreed very quickly because they no longer had to match their beliefs with their kings and fear death/jail for having an opposing faith. Locke’s ideas gain the most traction in colonial America. Begin arguing for equality of rights, individual rights, and other liberalism ideas. Thomas Jefferson influenced by Locke’s ideas and he incorporates Locke’s liberalism philosophy. Adds idea of being able to overthrow govt Human beings are born equal Foundational document of our country is based on locke’s liberalism philosophy Law of Nature established by Nature’s God o Not a personal god and doesn't interfere with human behavior but means that nature was created by a God not a specific god though. o Means that we are instituted first by a god and have individual rights o Common morality among cultures to understand how to behave Unalienable rights o Rights that cannot be removed, they are part of being a human being o “among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” these are the most important but there are others assumption that the things that aren’t written aren’t as important Locke says life liberty and property so Jefferson changes it Two parts to the concept of property: 1) you labored for it and 2) it is a part of you Federalist #10 o Federalist papers are a series of newspaper articles published in defense of the constitution Faction 2 o Means harmful to government and violates individual rights of others o Bad thing Defects in AOC o Central government couldn't generate revenue o State tariffs on each other o States had more power than federal government 08/30 Federalist Paper #10 (Madison) o Faction: a number of citizens whether minority or majority are united by a common interest/impulse (are passionate) and they are violating other people’s individual rights. negative thing Majority people get together and violate rights of the minority When laws are made by a majority of people (51%) then the minority has no say in the matter. Not interchangeable with an interest group Minority faction (10%) doesn't have much of an effect or concern to the public. o Solution to faction (hypothetical) Take away liberty (cause) Take away freedom of thought (everyone will think and believe the same thing) [impossible solution] Government (organized) Representatives that filter people’s needs and wants. Separation of Powers: keeps the representatives in check so that they don't get caught up in their own opinions 3 When Congress is arguing then its serving its purpose because the outcome/policy is moderate and a mixture of all opinions. State Government needed to respond to the people’s wishes quicker Lab Democracy: tests out certain policies. Even if the policy doesn't go well it only affects one state rather than the nation as a whole. o Colorado: marijuana o Texas: open carry o Causes of faction: Diversity of Faculties: different spectrum of abilities/traits (intelligence, beauty, etc.) People become jealous of the opportunities (work, more money) presented to those with advantageous and strong faculties. Rich vs. poor The reason people become factious of diversity of faculties is tied to self-love. People are self absorbed and care about their own opinion and beliefs more than other’s opinions/views. People are always going to be unreasonable. Texas Moralistic Culture (Doesn’t become a part of TX political culture) o Generally, found in New England o Established by Puritans Calvinist religious sect that believed the Anglican church is corrupt. Want religious perfection they were persecuted in England so they came to America to establish a theologically sound Puritan belief colony religious purity means good politics gov. part of daily life 4 human beings are totally depraved (we are very corrupt/damned) role of gov. is to enforce morals, regulate behavior eventually move to Northwest Territory (every state there was a free state) abolitionists are an outgrowth of Puritan beliefs/culture Traditionalistic Culture o Main crop was cotton Cotton destroys land so the slave states were constantly expanding to find land and consequently brought their slaves with them o Hierarchical societal structure Rich 1% Poor white people Not much economic mobility Slaves o Post Civil War structure Rich 1% Even more poor people Sharecropping: land owner farms land and the land owner puts a lot of debt that the farmer can never pay it off and ends up in a cycle of debt to land owner forever. o Even today there is a hierarchical societal structure. Individualistic Culture o Rugged individual that came to Texas for land, etc. o Were there on self-basis rather than controlled by government. 9/01 One Party State Democratic Party o Types of Democrats Landowners in the south/southern segregationists Pro-union (moderate liberals) Northern ideological liberals 5 Majority is the South African Americans & minorities (added by FDR 1932) o Moderately conservative and hard left liberals all in the same party. Republicans o Types of Republicans Big business Abolitionists Evangelicals Moderate right center Chamber of commerce o Party of anti-slavery Free soil, free labor, free men o Won in 1860 Lincoln 1964 Election o South (majority) votes Republican because the Civil Rights Act (1964/1965) was passed. Segregationists are against it TX doesn’t vote with the segregationists 1968 Election o Nixon elected Pres. o Deep South makes its own party o Texas doesn't side its vote with the segregationists. 1976 o Texas votes Democrat the last time Becomes republican controlled state Implicit Racism o Still about racism but discreet and “hidden” racism. o Cues o Does TX vote republican because its racist? In the 70’s and the 80’s the business and economic patterns radically changed and traditional family values are introduced. Diversity of Texas o Economic diversity Oil, technological, manufacturing, agriculture o Rural/Urban Areas Really popular recognized cities (DFW, Houston) 6 But some extreme farm rural areas o Geographically diverse o Ethnically Diverse o So much diversity yet the political thoughts are very unison. o Conformity on political issues 09/06 Texas State Constitution o First constitution was Coahuila y Tejas o Catholicism state religion of Mexico Prohibits slavery o Immigration: Mexico didn't want to allow Americans into Texas Afraid southerners would bring in slaves Texas itself wanted relaxed immigration laws to bring in slaves Texas gain its independence from Mexico o Independent Texas Republic Didn't join US to begin with b/c Missouri Compromise would be imbalanced with slave/free state Also would imbalance Senate by adding members o Bad thing because every state gets equal representation regardless of population. o South become more powerful in Senate than in House Texas Independent Republic Constitution o Slavery made legal (defense for slavery provided) o Banned priests from holding political office Fear that catholic religious leaders won’t promote the common good but would rather take orders from the Vatican. First loyalty would be to the Pope and Church 7 o The rights to life, liberty, and property appear in this constitution and they weren’t included in the Mexican constitution. Texas joins Union after Polk election o Enters as slave state o Slave holders vote democrat o Draws up new constitution Allows for slavery 1861 secedes from Union and joins Confederacy after 1861 not allowed to emancipate slaves (illegal to do so) Post Civil War o Reconstruction Debate Issues (political crisis) o What rights and opportunities do freed men have? (vote/work/live) o Southern states power? Should it be limited and how quickly are southern states allowed back into the Union o What to do with the Confederate army/leaders? (punished or normal?) o How to put the country back together without starting conflict? Can peace be restored? o 1866 Pres.: Andrew Johnson “middle way” slavery abolished but doesn't explain their rights/advantage o 1868 Ulysses S. Grant elected Pres. o 1869 Radical Republicans/Abolitionists didn't agree with the 1866 Impeach Johnson Reconstruction Act (all states must comply) Slavery abolished Voting rights for freed men 8 o Freedmen Bureau (support former slaves with education, property, shelter, financial) Freedmen could hold office o 1876 People tired of Reconstruction Era Edmund Davis Hated by South b/c they believe he takes their rights away. Almost all Southerners (mainly those part of confederacy) had a problem with 1869 Limits power of government/state government Many amendments passed (400s) Popular control of the government Sets the stage for segregation 09/08 Democracy (U.S) o Do we want more or less? What’s our opinion on it? o Texas Con. is longer, more detailed, more stuff/specific stuff Limits gov. authority o U.S Con. one of the shortest constitutions What limits Democracy o Supreme Court Judges Their decisions are influenced or dictated by public opinion There are no consequences for going against public opinion Elected by Senate o Electoral College We don't elect Pres. directly Acts as a filter for public o Senators How they are chosen are steps removed from the people Voted by state legislators o U.S Congress 9 Choose their own salaries and raises (follows inflation rates) Texas Constitution o Preamble includes mention of God o Only religious thing mentioned is that religious affiliation should not affect election to office. o Article I is the bill of rights Indication of what is most important/concerning Very long list of rights, limits what gov. can control o Article III Longest article Legislature addressed House: serve 2 years, 21 years old, 2-year resident, 1 in that district Senate: serve 4 years, 26 years old, 5-year resident, 1 year in that district Salaries dictated by Ethics Committee Texas Executive is called a plural executive Split into 6 different agencies o Governor: chief executive o Lieutenant Governor: serves as Pres. of Senate o Attorney General: acts as state’s chief legal officer o Secretary of State: keeps official seals of the state o Comptroller: handles state finances o Commissioner: handles state assets, investments, and property. Judiciary Branch All Justices elected by the people Their judgment will reflect the people’s opinion and not as much of their own judicial opinion. o Article 7 Very controlling on education o Amend U.S Constitution Proposal 10 Publish in major newspaper 2/3 House 2/3 Senate must vote for Put on ballot In Texas Constitution there is a fear of government officials and power In U.S Constitution there is a fear of democracy 09/15 Dual Federalism (Layered Cake) o Clear boundaries between federal and state powers Marble Cake Federalism Federal and state powers mix, not as clear Wichard vs Filburn 1943: turning point in federalism structure o Go from layered cake to marble cake o FDR tries to add retirement age on Supreme Court and he also tries to pass a law to add more justices to Supreme Court (who would rule in his favor) o “Switch in time that saved nine” Commerce Clause o Farmer has extra wheat than what he needed to sell, so he keeps the extra wheat and uses it for his own means(feed himself) o This violated FDR’s agriculture bill But the wheat didn't even cross the state lines let alone leave the guy’s house o Cumulative Effect Heart of Atlanta Motel vs. U.S 1964 o Hotel refuses to allow blacks to reside there o Violation of civil rights act which is under the interstate commerce clause o Gov. reasoning was that the hotel’s business was disrupted and thus disrupting the interstate commerce and nation’s economy New Federalism o Push back against interstate commerce clause o Supreme Court had misinterpreted the clause Block Grants 11 o Money given to the states by the federal gov. for anything (no specific title for funds) o Ex: welfare reform Unfunded Mandates: You do X or we won’t give you fund money for Y. o Medicaid Obamacare relation: if you don't expand Medicaid then you won’t get any funding Shot down by SC o Drinking Age: Before each state determined their own drinking age but federal gov. wanted it to be 21. So Congress said that if the states don’t raise the drinking age then the federal gov. won’t give states funding for building/repairing highways. o Americans with Disabilities Act This was really expensive for states to enact Ex: school bus that is wheelchair friendly is very expensive But required by federal gov. who wouldn't fund this mandate Selective Incorporation o States incorporate the Bill of Rights in the way that benefits them the most o Ex: 2ndAmendment: before it was thought to be that federal gov. had the right to bear arms but many states have now interpreted it that each individual has the ability to own a gun. 12
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