STUDY GUIDE Psycholgy Exam 1
STUDY GUIDE Psycholgy Exam 1 PSYC 1300
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb W Agan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Info found in “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5th edition -exact questions asked in Dr. Herb Agan’s class listed on last pages for reference Chapter 1 Psychology- A scientific study of behavior and mental processes Scientific Method- An organized set of procedures used to identify a problem, test it, collect data, find results, and explain these results STEP 1: Observe and TheorizeCreate a theory to explain behavior based off observations STEP 2: Formulate a Hypothesis “If, then” statement…a prediction STEP 3: Design a Study Design an experiment (and separate the necessary variables) STEP 4: Collect Data What information has been found? STEP 5: Apply Results to the Hypothesis Present results and possibly have experiment replicated by other researchers Goals of Psychology GOAL #1: “Description”- Identifying and classifying behaviors and mental processes as accurately as possible GOAL #2: “Explanation”- Proposing reasons for behaviors and mental processes GOAL #3: “Prediction”- Offering Predictions about how a given condition or set of conditions will affect behaviors and mental processes GOAL #4: “Influence”- Using the results of research to solve practical problems that involve behavior and mental processes Contemporary Psych. Perspectives BEHAVIORISM: emphasizes the key role of environment as a determined behavior PSYCHOANALLYSIS: unconscious affects personalities and psychological disorders HUMANISTIC: uniqueness of humans and capacity for choice and development COGNITIVE PSYC: studies mental processes like memory, problem solving, language, etc. EVOLUTIONARY: behaviors for survival that have adapted over the long course of evolution BIOLOGICAL: links specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH: social and cultural factors affect behavior and mental processes -Critical Thinking helps to improve independent thinking, suspension of judgement, willingness to modify beliefs Experimental and Control Groups Experimental Group: the group exposed to an independent variable Control Group: a group exposed to the same environment yet not given same treatment, used for comparisons Placebo: a harmless substance given to the control group in exp. as a control for a placebo effect Experimenter’s Bias: when a researcher’s preconceived expectations slightly influence participant’s behavior or the interpretation of the results Requirements for Research -Legality: must work all tests to respect governing laws -Institutional Approval: all institutions involved must approve of a study -Informed Consent: participants must be informed on study’s purpose and risks -Debriefing: when a participant is deceived, including when given a placebo, they should always be told about the deception as soon as the study is complete -Participants must not be damaged by the study (reputation included) -Payment for Participation: is expected with full info on study expectations/guidelines -Publications: researchers must report and publish data findings to appropriate public Chapter 2 Neuron: a specialized cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system Neurotransmitters: specialized chemical that promotes the transmission of impulses from one neuron to the other COMMUNICATION BETWEEN NEURONS Action Potential: “The sudden reversal of the resting potential, which initiates the firing of a neuron,” positive electrical potential again for 1 to 2 milliseconds. All-or-None Law: either neuron fires or it doesn’t Weak Stimulus: causes very few neurons to fire at once or to fire very slowly Strong Stimulus: causes neurons to fire hundreds of times per second Myelin Sheath: “The white, fatty coating wrapped around some axons that acts as insulation and enables impulses to travel much faster” *with a damaged myelin sheath or without one, signals across neurons are interrupted and might lead to disease like Multiple Sclerosis Synaptic Vesicles Neurotransmitter Production Process: 1. A neuron’s cell body is always prepared to make more neurotransmitters 2. Parts of unused neurotransmitters are recycled 3. New neurotransmitters are taken back to the axon terminal, ready for use (reuptake) Dopamine: affects attention span, learning, pleasure, etc. *plays a role in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Endorphins: provide relief from pain and feelings of pleasure Serotonin: affects mood and appetite Human Nervous Systems THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Peripheral Nervous System: The nerves connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body *consists of two parts: somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system which further divide into other systems Sympathetic Nervous System: system that prepares the body for action in an emergency when it senses danger Fight or Flight Response: body’s reaction to danger: to fight or run away Parasympathetic Nervous System: relaxes your body and heart rate once emergency is over THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System (CNS): system comprised of the brain and the spinal cord Spinal Cord: An extension of the brain linked to the body, sends messages between the brain and the peripheral nervous system. * can function without the brain if there were an injury preventing connection PARTS OF THE CEREBRUM White Myelinated Axons: beneath the cortex, white matter, connects the neurons of the cortex with those of other brain regions. The cerebral cortex contains three types of areas: (1) sensory areas, where the 5 senses are activated in vision, temperature, hearing, etc. (2) “Motor areas, which control voluntary movement (3) Association areas: which house memories and are involved in thought, perception, and language” CHANGES IN THE BRAIN -One’s age affects the amount of activity from neurotransmitters within the synapses Myelination: is the process by which myelin sheaths develop around the axons. This happens as an individual develops which explains why children and adult’s memory capability varies GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE BRAIN - white matter is related to the amount of neural communication -Women’s rains have more gray matter because they can better approach emotional situations -Whereas, men have more white matter because they perform better with logical tasks like sorting geometric figures BEHAVIORAL GENETICS Genes: segments of DNA located on the chromosomes, basic units with the codes for one’s hereditary traits Chromosomes: “Rod-shaped structures in the nuclei of body cells, which contain all the genes and carry all the genetic information necessary to make a human being.” Behavioral Genetics: “A field of research that uses twin studies and adoption studies to investigate the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior.” Chapter 4 Consciousness: Everything that we are aware at any given time (thoughts, feelings, our surroundings, etc.) Altered States of Consciousness: Changes in awareness affected by different stimuli like amount of sleep, drug use, etc. Circadian Rhythms: “Within each 24-hour period, the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors,” fluctuation on mood and energy level Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: a biological clock that controls circadian rhythm, is also not purely biological but also influenced by external factors like sunlight Subjective Night: when one’s biological clock is telling them it’s time to sleep -working during this time can deteriorate your work ability -energy does down, risk of accidents goes up SLEEP Circadian Theory of Sleep: theory that sleep has evolved as part of the human routine to keep humans from becoming prey of the night and keeping them out of danger Sleep Cycle: “A period of sleep lasting about 90 minutes and including one or more stages of NREM sleep, followed by REM sleep” NREM (non-REM) sleep: Four sleep stages in which our bodily functions are working at their lowest point of activity resulting in lower levels of movement, respiration, blood pressure, brain activity, etc. NREM Sleep Stages: STAGE 1: Transition from waking to sleeping; irregular waves with occasional alpha waves STAGE 2: Transition from light to deeper sleep; Sleep Spindles: periods of calmness then interrupted by random periods of intense activity STAGE 3: Deeper sleep aka Slow Wave Sleep, (20% of waves are delta waves) STAGE 4: Stage 4 Sleep is the stage of deepest sleep begins (50% of waves are delta waves) REM (rapid eye movement) Sleep: “A type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, paralysis, fast and irregular heart and respiration rates, increased brain-wave activity, and vivid dreams” REM Rebound: when one doesn’t get REM sleep so soon after they “catch up” on the REM sleep they missed -after the 1st REM sleep period, the sleep cycle starts again SLEEP DISORDERS Parasomnias: Sleep disturbances, cause people to take on behaviors that they would normally experience when awake Sleep Hygiene: sleep routine and habits Dyssomnias: “Sleep disorders in which the timing, quantity, or quality of sleep is impaired.” DREAMS REM dream: dream occurring during REM sleep, is more vivid and story-like NREM dream: dream occurring during NREM sleep, usually not remembered … Meditation: relaxation technique in which one would concentrate on a single idea or breath pattern in order to remove all distractions and reach ultimate relaxation and for some, spiritual state Hypnosis: procedure where one person uses the power of suggestion to influence the actions, thoughts, or feelings of the individual being hypnotized DRUG USE -One’s genetics, and cultural/social environment may influence their response to drugs and substance abuse Physical Drug Dependence: when an individual becomes tolerant to a certain drug as their body develops the ability to protect itself against the substance, thus requiring them to have a larger dose to have the same; results with unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug use is discontinued Drug Tolerance: “A condition in which the user becomes progressively less affected by the drug and must take increasingly larger doses to maintain the same effect or high.” -The discontinuation of the use of drugs can affect an individual’s every day functions like memory, self-control, and sense of time Psychological Drug Dependence: A craving or irresistible urge for a drug’s pleasurable effects Chapter 8 Developmental Psychology: “The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the life span” -All developmental theories take a position in the nature–nurture debate, and discuss whether development occurs in stage or continuously -Stage theories assume that development happens in phases PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Schemes: a set plan, influenced by previous experiences, like a set of expectations Assimilation: “The process by which experiences, or info is incorporated into existing schemes” Accommodation: mental process of changing existing schemes to fit in new found information or experiences -Paiget believes schemes set the foundation for the 4 stages of cognitive development The Sensorimotor Stage: Stage where infants understand their world through senses and motor activities, (reflexive behavior becomes intelligent behavior) Object Permanence: The realization that objects and people are still there even when you can’t see them Ex: Peek-a-boo The Pre-Operational Stage: second stage, 2 to 7 years of age Symbolic Function: understanding that one thing can represent another, mentally Ex: a child sees a blanket fort and pretends it’s a cave, or pretends a block is a car Egocentrism: believing that everyone sees the world exactly the same as you Ex: a child would expect their parents to see the “lava” beneath the couches like they do The Concrete Operations Stage: third stage, 7 to 11 or 12 years old Conservation: “The concept that a given quantity of matter remains the same despite being rearranged or changed in appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away.” Reversibility: “The realization that any change in the shape, position, or order of matter can be reversed mentally” Ex: a child may see a broken cookie and think its useless now and cry for a new one With reversibility, they learn that the cookie is still the same substance and can still be eaten despite its changed appearance -At this stage kids still can’t apply logic to hypothetical situations Ex: can’t understand that one day they will need a career or that if Sally is the oldest sibling and Jan is older than Joe, Joe must be the youngest sibling The Formal Operations Stage: Final stage, 11 or 12 years and beyond -At this stage, individuals grow sense of interest in the world and can use H- Adolescent Egocentrism: type of thought suggested by David Elkind which takes two forms: 1. Imaginary Audience: “A belief of adolescents that they are or will be the focus of attention in social situations and that others will be as critical or approving as they are of 2. Personal Fable: “An exaggerated sense of personal uniqueness and indestructibility, which may be the ba -confidence KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Kohlberg found that moral reasoning comes in three levels, each with two stages Levels and Stages Preconventional Level: state in which moral reasoning is based on the physical consequences of an act not standards of right or wrong, avoiding punishment Stage 1: “right” is whatever avoids punishment Stage 2: benefits one received for doing a favor or behaving Conventional Level: state in which one’s ideas of right and wrong are set by society Stage 3: moral judgement is based on social acceptance, also called Good Boy- Nice Girl Orientation Stage 4: the need to maintain order Postconventional Level: level at which one judges the standards of right and wrong, weighing to see how they complement or contradict basic human rights -This level is rarely seen before adulthood Stage 5: the person believes that laws are created to protect both society and the individual and should be changed if they fail to do so, individual rights before the law Ex: Declaration of Independence Stage 6: ethical decisions are based on universal ethical principles like life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness -Moral development is a lifelong process ERIKSON’S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT -deals with intellectual development Psychosocial Stages: Erikson’s eight developmental stages (lifelong development), “each defined by a conflict that must be resolved satisfactorily for healthy personality development to occur” Basic Trust Vs Basic Mistrust: infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust depending on the amount of care and love they receive Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt: children aged 1-3 years begin to develop independence by saying No Initiative Vs Guilt: children ages 3 to 6 years old begin to take initiative in regards to their newfound independence Industry Vs Inferiority: school age children begin to enjoy making and doing things -The last few stages happen after puberty but are not tied to age but experience Identity Vs Role Confusion: stage where teens are confused and having an identity crisis, not sure about how they fit in to the “adult world” Intimacy Vs Isolation: stage usually around 18 years where a young adult must find a life partner or accept the single-life Generativity Vs Stagnation: around middle age, adults must interact with the new generation through teaching or mentoring, or else they become stagnant Ego Integrity Vs Despair: the last stage, one must accept themselves and death, otherwise they become depressed and hopeless -People may experience these stages at different times, for example, not everyone finds their identity or career at the same time as others Infancy: first two years Early Childhood: 2 to 6 years Middle Childhood: 6 years to puberty Adolescence: puberty until becoming and ljjhjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjadult, which varies from culture to culture Early Adulthood: 18 to 40-45 years of age Middle Adulthood: 45 to 65 years Late Adulthood: 65 years and older PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND INFANCY Prenatal Development: Development prior to birth Stages of Prenatal Development Zygote/ Germinal Stage: Cell created by the union of a sperm and egg The Period of the Embryo: weeks 3 through 8, bone cells develop Embryo: The developing human organism, already resembles a person with limbs Fetus/ The Period of the Fetus: (week 9 until birth), last stage of rapid growth and development of bodily organs and systems -In the last few weeks of pregnancy, the fetus can respond to stimuli from outside womb … Attachment: strong bond to mother or caregiver Contact Comfort: comforting coming from bodily contact -In a study done, baby monkeys were presented with two (metallic) mother figures, one that provided the monkey with a milk bottle and another that provided no support but was covered in soft cloth her (contact comfort) and preferred contact to food SOCIALIZATION: “process of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values” Parenting Styles: methods parents use to control children’s behavior Authoritarian Parents: Parents who believe “because I said so” is enough reason to demand obedience, quite strict and don’t leave much room for discussion, punish bad behavior (usually physically) Authoritative Parents: Parents who set high yet realistic expectations for their child, are very open to communication and providing support Permissive Parents: Parents who lack authority and allow children to make own decisions •Permissive Indulgent: warm and supportive to show love -this parenting may lead to immaturity and impulsiveness •Permissive Neglectful: lack warmth or care for children, allow them to do what they want because they don’t care -this parenting may lead teens to get involved in alcoholism, promiscuous sex, etc. Peer Relationships: children make friends around the age of 3 or 4 simply seeing a friend as someone they play with, for older kids, making friends becomes a matter of being part of a group GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Gender Roles: Cultural expectations on how each gender should behave Androgen: Male sex hormone -gender roles are most affected by one’s environment that biology/genetics Gender Identity: by age 2 or 3, children begin to identify as a certain gender, boy or girl Gender Stability: by age 4 or 5, children are aware that their gender is permanent forever Gender Constancy: by age 6 to 8, children realize that activities or interests don’t change your gender -Kohlberg claims that once a child realizes they will be the same gender forever, they tend to look for same-sex role models to imitate Puberty: “A period of rapid physical growth and change that culminates in sexual maturity” EMERGING ADULTHOOD Emerging Adulthood: proposed by Jeffrey Arnett, “period from the late teens to early 20s when individuals explore options prior to committing to adult roles” PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE CHANGES Menopause: a woman stops menstruating, typically known by symptoms of hot flashes and mood swings -Men, on the other hand, begin to decrease their testosterone and semen production as well as decreased sex drive in old age SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Living Arrangements: where one lives and with whom is an important factor of adulthood and sociability. Some live with married companion, some live alone, some live as an unmarried couple, some just have roommates Marriage and Divorce: 80% of adults will marry at least once. Parenthood: the stage of having children Careers: Personality and identity come into play when one finds a career The Myths of Middle Age: Empty Nest Syndrome: when grown children leave the home and parent finds time to rediscover their identity Mid-life Crisis: anxiety coming from one realizing they have lost their youth Stressor Overload: when an adult must balance caring for a teen, while managing a job, and caring for their elderly parents as well *claimed by David Almeida and colleagues LATER ADULTHOOD General Slowing: A process the breaking down of the myelin sheath lead to a slowing of physical and mental functions, decreased neural transmissions, aka signals from neuron to neuron - “Older adults who keep mentally and physically active tend to retain their mental skills as long as their health is good” Social Adjustment: Situations like retirement or losing a spouse would require that one adjust to new social situations and environments Successful Aging: “Maintaining one’s physical health, mental abilities, social competence, and overall satisfaction with life as one gets older.” Death Stages of Coming to Terms with Death: -Ross 1. Denial: shock or disbelief at knowledge of illness 2. Anger: resent those that are young and healthy 3. Bargaining: individual may try to ask God for health in return for “good behavior” 4. Depression: feel sense of loss for past and future situations 5. Acceptance: no longer fear or struggle with death -Some of these stages may not be visible in other cultures as some see dying as part of a natural cycle or like Mexicans, some may see death as a time to reflect one the good in one’s life and even celebrate it (Day of the Dead) Passive Euthanasia: person decides to end use of life support Active Euthanasia: using a fatal drug or injection with medical support to speed up “assisted suicide”/death process Hospice Care: like a nursing home but specifically those who WILL die soon Grieving Process: process of mourning after someone’s death Chapter 11 Personality: a person’s characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling Affected by trait approach- suggest people repeat similar behavior in varying situations PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES Freud’s 3 levels of consciousness (all 3 interact) Conscious: whatever we are aware of at the moment Preconsciousness: things that are not consciously thinking about but might be easily brought to memory Unconsciousness: memories that are so unpleasant the mind repressed them, “involuntarily removed them from consciousness” Id, Ego, Superego (3 systems of personality) Id- part of personality present at birth = inherited, primitive, inaccessible, and completely unconscious *Acts on pleasure principle which seeks instant pleasure and avoids pain Ego- the most rational and realistic part of the personality *Acts on reality principle, decides what is appropriate or needed vs what is desired Superego: has two moral components: 1) parts for which one has been punished 2) behaviors for which one has been rewarded * seeks moral perfection Defense Mechanism: technique used to fight against anxiety and to maintain self-esteem Repression: removing painful thoughts or memories from the conscious *type of defense mechanism PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT Psychosexual Stages: stages through which sexual instincts develops Erogenous Zone: part of the body that provides pleasurable sensation and conflict *if conflict goes unsolved, a child may develop a fixation Fixation: “Arrested development at a psychosexual stage” because of too much pleasure or frustration at that stage Oedipus/ Elektra Complex: conflict in which a child develops a sexual attraction to and seeks attention of opposite sex parent and becomes hostile towards same sex parent repressing feelings for opposite sex parent and developing mannerisms of same sex parent (=development of Superego) *failure to resolve conflicts creates psychological problems with sex in adulthood NEO-FREUDIANS (CARL JUNG) Personal Unconscious- unique to each person, contains all thoughts and experiences available to the unconscious as well as the repressed memories (KAREN HORNEY) believes personality develops and changes over time TWO HUMANISTIC THEORIES Pg 371. (ABRAHAM MASLOW) believes one must feel psychological safety (body acceptance) and belongingness before search for esteem needs and self-actualization Esteem Needs: includes academic, social, and professional achievement *motives that lead (CARL) Self-actualization: developing to one’s fullest potential * Not everyone reaches this because of their upbringing (ROGERS) Conditions of Worth: standards or values that decide what an individual should act like to be worthy of acceptance Rogers’ Goal: that everyone live by own values rather than those imposed on them Person Centered Therapy: teach individuality Unconditional Positive Regard: absolute and automatic acceptance of another individual Self-esteem: “a person’s sense of self-worth” TRAIT THEORIES Trait: personal characteristic that frequently presents itself in many situations, like a habit that describes one’s personality Central Traits: general characteristics that a person would use to characterize themselves Surface Traits: observable qualities of personality (HANS EYSENCK) PEN= 3 factor model for personality test Psychoticism: a continuum that represents an individual’s link to reality From (Psychotic) live in fantasy and hallucinations to living in rigid reality with no creativity Extroversion: preference to being around people Agreeableness: easy going (ranges from compassion to antagonistic Neuroticism: Emotional stability (ranges from stable to anxious) Five Factor Model (OCEAN) Five factor model: model describing personality using five broad dimensions Openness: eager to try new experiences Conscientiousness: paying attention to detail Extraversion: preference to being around people Agreeableness: easy going Neuroticism: tend to be pessimistic and overreact -Heritability: an estimate of the percentage of variation in a trait that is due to genes *heredity INFLUENCES but does not DECIDE it PERSONALITY AND CULTURE Cultural influences are not captured by the five factor model 4 CULTURAL RELATED DIMENSIONS one of which is… Individualism: measure of a culture’s emphasis on individual success and sociability Social Cognitive Theory: idea that personality is created through collection of behaviors developed through social interactions Situation Trait Debate: discussion among theorists about social situations’ influence on personality Reciprocal Determinism: “Bandura’s concept of a mutual relationship between behavior, cognitive factors, and environment” Self-efficacy: one’s belief that they can do whatever they set their minds to Locus of Control: some people believe they control their fate External Locus of Control: some believe fate controls their life IN CLASS QUESTIONS: Chapter 11 Questions: 1. What is the central idea of psychoanalytic theory? 2. What is the purpose of self-defense mechanisms? 3. What is projection? * “Attributing one’s own undesirable traits, thoughts, behavior, or impulses to another” 4. What are the conditions on which parental regard rest? 5. What creates the self-esteem? 6. What is unique about trait theory? * focus personality differences Chapter 2 Questions: 1. What cells conduct impulses to the nervous system? 2. How do you measure the strength of the brain’s response to stimuli? 3. If you fall down and break your arm, what enzyme do you want your brain to release? 4. What does the central nervous system consist of? 5. According to the book, what determines handedness? 6. Why do female brains have more grey matter? * better in confronting emotional situations Chapter 4 Questions: 1. What do daydreaming, meditation, intoxication, and sleepiness have in common? 2. What is the most significant environmental queue that influence our circadian rhythm? 3. If you work when your body tells you to go to sleep, what goes up and what goes down? 4. What does REM sleep mean? 5. What is the effect of small amounts of sleep on your cognitive ability? 6. What is the body’s natural way of protecting itself from harmful substances? Chapter 8 Questions: 1. According to Piaget, what is a plan of action based on previous experience? 2. What is the process by which new objects, events, and experiences are incorporated into the brain? 3. What is the realization that an object exists, even when you can’t see it? 4. David Elkind, what are the 2 forms of adolescent egocentrism? 5. According to Erikson, when does one search for identity? What is the stage called? 6. When an elderly person doesn’t feel a sense of accomplishment, what kind of feelings do they deal with? QUESTIONS ON EXAM: 1.What are 3 sources of authority? 2. What are the 4 aspects of studying psychology as a sciene? 3. What aspects of nature vs. nurture determine personality? 4. What are the 4 common psychology theories? Ex: humanistic, sociocultural *Give names of advocates, popular themes, and examples 5. What is an ego? What are the ego’s 3 functions? What does the ego grown on? 6. What are the 4 maxims of stage development? + examples -The crisis occurs when the inner need and the outer environment make certain demands on the individual -The crisis involves a marked shift in perspective for the individual -It is a time of vulnerability as well as the development of new strengths -At each stage the individual is confronted between two ways od coping 1) a maladaptive way 2) an adaptive, fulfilling way
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