Chapters 1-5 SG
Chapters 1-5 SG 1004
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by rachel kelliher on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
[Chapter 1] ~Notes Psychological science o Def: study of behavior and brain processes o Goals= focus is on behavior so it can b understand so it can be modified and control ID, text, and break theories Primary emphasis= discovering and explain causes of behavior o Tools= sci method The only type of test that allows us to confer causality= experimental design Research methods: Appropriate design: must have experiment Replication: must be able to get same results Methods and treatment of subjects must be just and have sci support Control groups When studying behavior- events that cause one another= casual events o 2 division of pysch: application and research o Many different fields >physiological: NS and functions >cognitive psychology: mental processes >comparative: species v species >cognitive neuroscience: brain mechanism >behavioral genetics: gene impact >developmental >cross cultural >social: how people impact behavior >personality >clinical >evolutionary: theory of natural selection= principle o how decisions are made Make probability statements- never exactly right: all based off of stats Modern pysch is based on the idea that behavior is subject to strict natural laws- allows us to use the sci method Father of modern pysch= Rene Descartes: advocate of the rational approach and investigating natural phenomena by sensory experiences and reasoning o Huge contribution= doctrine of specific nerve endings o Bio basics: organic or psychological- is it genetics? Or is it due to mental processes? Almost all pysch conditions have psych, chemical and bio factors All evidence shows that psych= biological o Mind body controversy Soul= mind In science there is no free will- brain stimulation controls actions o Free will exists in philosophy Philosophical doctrine: your philosophy determines what you see and how you perceive what you are seeing Monism= body and environment o Aristotle and Hippocrates and Galen Dualism: body and maybe soul Interactionism: mind and soul that interacts with the body when it comes to free will Really not an issue in psych- can’t study the soul with an experiment o Determinism= doctrine that behavior is a result of prior events o The law of effect: the stimuli that occur as a response to a reaction can either increase or decrease the like hold of that responses occurring again Positive and negative reinforcement Edward Throndike= creator o Theories: Structuralism: subject matter= structure of the mind built from elements of consciousness (stimulations and ideas) Introspection= area (died out) Functionalism: focused on processes of conscious activity and located at how environment and evolution impacted decisions Heavily influenced by Darwin Theory on emotion: huge impact on pysch Functionalism has died out Basic principles o Study of mental operations- must try to understand what the mind is doing o Mental process must be studied as part of ID activity of an organism o Studies relationship between environment and organisms response Pyschodamnic theory- Freud: includes structure BUT emphasized function- mental structures= drivers and instincts reflect animal nature Behaviorism: study of relationship between environment and behavior does not look at mental events Ivan Pavlou’s work with dogs-> through experience animals can learn response to stimuli o Humanistic psychology: emphasizes human experiences, choice, creativity, and personal growth Insits that human nature goes beyond environment Ideal= studies should be done on cognitive processes and positive phenomena o Cognitive pysch: analyses mental activities in terms of info processing- info brought to the brain via senses and then processed by different systems o Localization brain and behavior Use of electricity and the brain Bartholow & Mary Raffertry, 1874: say the distinct reaction of the muscles on the right side of the body Delgado cat: lifted left hind lef in response to stimuli Determined that left side of brain controls right body and right brain controls left body Penfield, 1950s: mapped the sensory and motor cortexes of human patients during eplispy surgery History o Behavioral control: 1936: Delagado stopped a charging bull with a remote stimulation He knew that there were certain brain circuits that controlled anger and could stimulate those cirucits o Lametrie: the man the machine- tutored by the catholic church o Descartes: father of psychophysiology Paid by the church- convinced them that they had to study human behavior (didn’t study anything that dealt with free will) Discovered Pinal body o First lab= Wilhem Wundy Germany= birth stace He wrote the 1 textbook His school= structuralism- emphasis was on introspection 44,000 elements therefore introspection is not exact Not directly observable- not scientific The brain o As you move down the motor and sensory cortexes you move superiorly up the body: top of cortex= feet and bottom of cortexes= lips o Broca’s area= speech center- produces speech o Werknike’s area= language comprehension o Left brain= logical brain: looks at things in pieces and then puts them together o Right brain= stupid brain/ creative brain: visual process center that looks at the whole picture and then the details o Research: Fristch & Hitzig: electrical stem to map functions of brain Helmbholtz: proved that mental phenomena could be proven by psychological means Failed at measuring the reaction to physical stimuli- everyone is so different BUT did discover that people can distinguish between 2 similar stimuli ~Chapter Summary Psychology= study of behavior- psychologists study large variety of behaviors in humans and animals alike o Attempt to explain the behaviors by studying the events that cause the behavior 11 different approaches: physiological psych, comparative psych, behavior genetics, cognitive psych, cognitive neuroscientists, developmental psych, social psych, personality psych, evolutionary psych¸ cross- cultural psych, clinical psych History o Birth- Germany 1800s Psych believed in the principles of… Materialism) the mind was made of matter-> idea that natural phenomena (human behavior) could be explained in terms of physical entities- interaction between energy and matter o Implies determinism- opposes free will Empiricism) all knowledge was acquired by means of experience- no knowledge was innate o Education Progressives stressed that natural development of the child and sought methods that would match the way that children normally learn Thorndike- law of effect Montessori- different methods were appropriate at different stages in life o Major trends Wundt & structuralism) based ono the idea that the mind’s content could be described via introspection Functionalism) stressed the adaptive value of bio phenomena Cognitive revolution) began because some pysch believed that a strict emphasis on observable behavior missed the complexity of human cognition and behavior. [CHAPTER TWO] ~Notes Pysch as a science o Reification: explaining things by giving it a label- most common method of explanation in science o Level of explanation: Old model: pysch-> bio-> chem-> physics BUT physics= not exact: o Einstein principle of relativity- “God does not play dice” o Heisenberg uncertainty principle- no matter how good a scientist is, there is still some degree of uncertainty associated with findings Reduces physics to levels of other sciences 2 parts Can only speak with certainty of the things that we have observed The very act of observing changes that which is observed BASICALLY: uncertainly is inherent in any science even in psych o Research terms Factual statements Empirical laws: laws that are known Performance is related to arousal level o Yerkes- Dodson Law: behavior/ arousal level is related in an inverted U fashion: performance will improve to the optimal level and then performance will go down o Arousal theory: single most important theory in pysch: we seek an optimum level of arousal Brain controls reticular activating system- all info passes through it- if stimuli= arousal provoking you will be aroused Impact of research o Has led to competition and rigorous evaluations o Has led to theories being tested over and over with new hypotheses Theory: set of statements designed to explain a phenomea- proposes relationships among variables and makes predications Goal= make theories stronger o naturalistic and clinical observations-> source of theories and hypotheses To understand behavior we have to have some sort of clue Systematic observations have allowed trained observers to discover subdued differences in behavior and develop hypotheses o Development of genitalizations Small groups who are said to rep the whole population are studied and results of study are said to rep the whole community Confidence with the generalization increases with replication of the same results Cross cultural generalizations= really hard because everyone is so different How behavior is studied o Case history- patient self report, retrospective reconstruction Sigmund Freud & Annon O- hysteria o Single subject experiment- only one thing is studied ABAB reversal design The more reversals that are made with the same results the conclusion= the more effective the treatment Multiple baseline design- ID the different baselines and then treat them one at a time Pioneer= B.f Skimer o Test methods: aptitude tests- measure intelligence o Survey method/ survey study - ask ? and come up with a conclusion based off of the answers ?= standardized o Types of research Correlational studies: nature observations- measure environment, physical, and social characteristics and behavior Things that can’t be manipulated- gender, history, income See how they impact behavior and personality via case studies Correlations DO NOT EXACLTY MEAN… o That a cause and effect relationship exists o Does not prove causal relationships Observational method Naturalistic: don’t get involved- just watch o Jane Goodall and Apes Clinical: can intervene to treat patients o More experimental; reports= case studies o correlational method: allows predications to be made about the relationship between two variables trying to predict the level of one variable based off of another theory DOES NOT ALLOW YOU TO PERMIT CAUSLAITY OR THE EXSITANCE OF A LINEAR RELATHIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 VARIBLES Correlations rep by person) R:R Measured from 0-1.00 Can be positive or negative ( -1.00 OR 1.00= perfect) o Positive: high values associated with high values OR low values in one variable are associated with low values in the other variable o Negative: high values associated with low values OR low values in one variable are associated with high values in the other o Coefficient of determination: allows magnitude comparison o Experimental method THE ONLY DESIGN THAT ALLOWS YOU TO MAKE A CORELATIVE STATEMENT= EXPERIMENTAL Correlative statement= statement that states that a relationship DOES exist between two variables EXPERIMENTS= ONLY WAY TO TELL IF A THEROY/ HYPTH IS TRUE Must classify and name the behavior that you want to study: point of psych= determine what events caused a certain behavior BUT DON’T COMMIT A NORMAL FALLACY Experiments must have reliability; reliability= repeatable results Subjectivity could impact degree of reliability Interrater reliability must be high for conclusions to be valid Must include: IV, DV, control group AND allow for causality inference. Variables must be distance and must be able to manipulate the IV Variables must be well defined and how they will be measure/ changed- Operational definition o Validity Casualty inference: Causal inference is the process of drawing a conclusion about a causal connection based on the conditions of the occurrence of an effect Confiding variables-> invalid results because you can’t tell if the IV truly changed the DV counterbalancing= way to prevent confounding variables random assignment can help deal with confounding variables response bias may be a problem in some experiments o working with people can’t always get them to behave exactly how you want them too in an experiment Hawthorne effect) if participants figure out that they are in an experiment they will behave differently Either make hypotheses True or False BASICALLY: they change their behavior if they figure out they are in an experiment of if they figure out the hypotheses Why to prevent= single blind experiment OR deception 2 types of experiments Single blinded: participants don’t know what group that they are in Double blinded: participants and researchers don’t know what group participants are in Ethics must be followed Minimize mental and physical harm Maximize the benefits of research Subjects should be fully informed (if possible) & you need informed consent Deception= okay in certain situations Do not intrude on personal lives Confidentiality= promise Vulnerable participants need to be treated with extra care Participants must be debriefed at the end Examining the results o Descriptive stats: math that allows us to analyze data Central trend- stat that represents many observations: mean and median Variability: compares group: range and standard deviation Relations: how closely related 2 sets are: scatter plots Used in correlation studies o Inferential stats: math used to determine if results are statistically significant If stats= due to chance or truly exist Guidelines to determine degree of chance come from normal distribution chart ~Chapter Summary Three types of sci. research: naturalistic/ clinical observations, correlational studies, and experiments Hypotheses; stated in general terms- why operational definitions are needed o Validity= degree to which an operational definition succeeds in producing a particular value of the IV or in measuring the DV o Reliability deals with consistency and precision of an operational definition Correlation studies involve assessing relations among variables that the researcher cannot readily manipulate o Even a well-designed study cannot determine which variables is the cause and which one is the effect Psychologists need a way to communicate results with accuracy and efficiency: o Use measure of central tendency, variability and relations: mean, median, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient [Chapter 3] ~Notes Neuron o Basic unit of the nervous system o Glial cells help neurons- support cells: produce myelin sheath o Discovered by Ramon y Cajal- ID induvial neurons by using stain Called glial cells mother cells Came up with the neuronal doctrine o Able to use stimuli to make decision and then send AP to body to carry out response in another tissue (neuron, muscle, organ) Stimuli opens the ion channels that trigger change in composition o Structure Receptive portions- receive messages: cell body (soma), dendrites and spines( allow for synapses to occur- receptors) Analytic portions- sends the message- axon hillock Hillock determines if stimuli is strong enough to trigger an AP Expressive portions- sends the neurotransmitter- axon buttons o Two types of communication via synapses Graded potentials- vary in mag. Excitatory= positive= EPSP- depolarize the cell Inhibitory= negative= IPSP- hyperpolarize cell Action potentials- all or none law Fires as soon as threshold (-55) is reached by the ESPS Axon membrane: cations- positive- NA= outside & antion- negative- K= inside o When NA enters charge increases and then with K leaves the cell is becomes negative again K leaving restores the resting potential Resting Potential= -70: maintained by the K-NA pump Vagusstoff discovered how neurons talk to each other- neurotransmitters Discovered the first one: acetylcholine o Vit. B= critical to AcH and AchE- AcH= vit B complex o Neurotransmitters Turn functions of the brain on and off Excitatory (glutamate) OR inhibitory (GABA) Types: Dopamine (primarily in L. brain- happiness, laziness, depression) impacts learning, movement and attention Norepinephrine (mood) serotonin (mood)- eating, sleeping, etc Endorphins/ neuropeptides= naturally occurring opioid structures produced by the body Neuromodulators: chemicals that get into the general brain circulation and cause the stimulation of 1,000s of neurons o Most= nerupeptides: 2+AA connected via peptide bonds Effect of drugs on the NS- effect receptors and neurotransmitters o Mimic the effect of some neurotransmitters o Alter: storage, release, reuptake, block receptor sites, stimulate R. sites o Types: curare, scopolamine, atropine, botulism, nerve gas All above effect AcH and AcHE The brain o The brain has 3 functions 1. Control of behavior 2. Regulation of physiological processing 3. Receiving and processing info o Perceives outward (environmental) perceptions/ stumuli and internal o Collateral- left brain controls right body and right brain controls left body Taste and smell= ipsilateral: L=L and R=R o Left) language, serial processing, social approach, positive emotion, PNS Logic side of the brain: analysis info Controls the right side of the body Self-aware part of the brain: Self-critical Personal space and perception of body- keeps tracks of body parts Controls/ expresses positive emotions Speech output (left frontal)- problems lead to issues with speech comprehension- can understand or create meaningful speech Damage causes problems with reading and writing o Right) spatial (faces, places, prosody), parallel processing, social avoidance, negative emotion, SNS Generally does not like to be around other people Deals with intense emotions- anger, sadness, fear, disgust, happiness: emotions associated with SNS Worldly side: Aware of the environment and what is going on around you Blames others for problems Controls/ expresses negative emotions Emotional output (right frontal)- problems lead to issues with emotional comprehension Puts the pieces together to form the bigger picture Damage->Problems with.. not being able to recognize nonspeech sounds and sounds from the environment perceiving 3D objects and shapes perception with stimuli on Left side of body and objects around use o Balance theory) when things are going well- the two halves aren’t fighting each other- they are in balance R and L= 2 distinctively different brains that control different things and can contradict each other at times o Lobes Frontal: Jobs: personality, emotional expression, preservation/ inertia, rules and regulations, abstract reasoning, motor control, speech expression, and distractibility o Problems with… Preservation/ inertia) difficulty with stopping or staring Left= speech- stuttering Right= spatial awareness- hard time knowing where you are Rules and regulations) Right brain= problems with following social pragmatics+ anarchy left brain= problems with following rules of logic Executive functions: specialized for organizing, planning, sequencing, and regulatory control of functions (front office) Damage-> problems changing the plan, adapting new strategies, and lack of foresight, hard time changing plans Occipital- vision Letter, number, line and face recognition Cortical blindness- total or partial loss of vision bc of damage to the lobe Parietal- job depends on side of brain Left) body awareness, relational thought Right) neglect, awareness of deficits, completion of tasks Temporal- hearing: auditory and speech Learning and memory Speech compression Emotion Contains: Wernicke’s area (L,P)- understanding words AND Broca’s (L,A)- speaking o The corpus callosum connects R and L Split brain patients- have issues with connection- why one side of the brain tries to hurt the other Less connection in children with autism Agenais of CC= rare birth defect- complete or partial absence of CC o Brain stem) pons, midbrain, and medullae: controls physiologic behavior and automatic behaviors- Controls internal functions o Cerebellum) controls coordinated movement o Cerebral hemispheres) largest portion of the brain- controls perceptions, memories and behavior Where memories are stored and plans are made Divided by the central fissure o Thalamus receives all sensory info and then sends it to the cerebral cortex o Limbic system) set of structures in cerebral hemispheres that play role in memory, learning, and emotional expression Boarder= limbic cortex Hippocampus & amygdala (controls fight or flight) Damage to A-> increase in aggressive behavior o Hypothalamus: controls pituitary gland and be default the ANS Damage-> impaired regulation of temp, stunting of growth, and changes in food+ water intake o Protection: brain blood barrier, gray and white matter, cerebral cortex Tests o Once we were able to see 3D structures of the brain, psychologist could make connections between brain damage/ abnormalities and the theories that they had developed to explain them o Structure: CT and MRI- lesions o Brain activity (either electrical or chemical): EEG, MEG o Real time: fMRI, PET o Can now alter genetics Brain DOES change over the course of time o Loss cells and gain some back o Decrease in tissue volume leads to increase in brain function Strokes o Right brain) indifferent to what happened- unware of problems o Left brain) catastrophic reaction: something is wrong with me! o Damage-> loss of brain cells o Less activation: impaired strength, body senses, vision and hearing o More activation: seeing, hearing, feeling, and seeing things that aren’t actually there Topographical arrangement o La metre- brain is like a machine o Different things/ sensations go to different parts of the brain o Logically arranged o Projection areas= were sensory perception occurs Motor= frontal, somatosensory= parietal, auditory= temporal and visual= occipital Rule of thumb- sensations get sent to the back of the brain: P,T,O ~Chapter Summary 3 major functions of the brain: controlling behavior, processing and storing info about environment and regulating the body’s physiological processes CNS: spinal cord and brain (=brain stem, cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres) Glia.. o Assist neurons in tasks o Provide physical support, aid in development of NS, provide neurons with chemicals remove unwanted chemicals, and create myelin sheaths for axons Drugs and behavior o Drugs can facilitate or interfere with synaptic activity Facilitating drugs cause NT release Interfering: inhibit release of NT o 2 main NT= glutamate (excitatory) and GABA (inhibitory) o Serotonin helps decrease aggressive behavior and risk taking behavior Drugs that suppress its release help with anxiety, depression and OCD o Most peptides= neuromodulators Study of the brain o CT scans, PET imaging, MRI, fMRI= structure and function of the brain tests Control of behavior and body’s physiological functions o Primary and association cortex help figure out senses Association cortex= sensory regions that are responsible for perceiving and learning the motor regions that are responsible for planning and acting. o Cerebral cortex relay sensory info to the cerebral cortex o Left hemisphere= concerned with perception o Right hemisphere= concerned with global events Left brain: Broca’s and Wernkie’s areas- “We speak with the left brain” [Chapter 4] ~Notes Sensation= psychophysics o Studying the physical energy that exists in the world that we are capable of converting into neruo energy o Number of Nobel prize winners: Buck+ Axel & Grerog Von Beksy= sound WHILE Hubel+Wiesel= Vision o Experience= 2 divisions Sensation: direction of stimulation props of stimuli (brightness, color, warmth, etc) Perception: recognition of objects, location, movement and backgrounds o Earnest weber) Discovered JND- just noticeable difference- the smallest change in magnitude that person can detect Weber fractions= ratio between JND and mag of stimuli: different for every stimuli o Fechner) used Weber’s JND to develop his signal detection theory: ability to ID stimuli from noise and willingness to report signal detection Takes into account the random changes in JND Response bias= factor in detection: the tendency for a receptor to say yes/ no- to report a stimuli ALSO showed the amount of physical energy needed to produce a JND difference with magnitude General overview of senses o Transduction: process of converting one type of En (any En or stimuli) to another form of En Occurs at receptors- pain, temp, color= noticeable stimuli Sensory receptors= “limited bandwidth capacity”- can only detect certain frequencies ranges o Adaptation= secondary property of receptors o Threshold Absolute: the minimum physical energy needed to activate a given sensory system 50% of the time Affected by sleep, hormones Very dynamic- change based on the setting for every person, change per person and by population Method if limits is used to communicate it o Ascending vs descending: A= increase in intensity over time period & D= decrease in intensity over time period Difference threshold: the difference between 2 stimuli require to distinguish the difference between 2 different stimuli Related to absolute 2-point threshold- test used to determine how sensitive the skin is at a certain point The line between perceiving and not perceiving a stimuli The senses o Vision Rods and cons in the eye perceive light intensity: 360 (red)-> 760 (violet) PASSAGE OF LIGHT: cornea-> lens-> BV-> ganglion cells-> bipolar and horizontal cells-> cones and rods via NT: photoreceptors to bipolar to ganglion to brain Eye anatomy 3 distinct layers 1. Sclera= outermost: tough protective layer that creates the corona a. The first prism system of the eye- the corona- admits light 2. Choroid= middle: modified to from the iris a. Iris= directly innervated by the PNS and SNS: PNS= pupil constriction and SNS= pupil dilation i. Pupils dilate to pain no matter the source; known as ciliospinal reflex/ budge ii. Pupil dilates when light= dim and constricts when light= bright b. BASICALLY: the iris allows light in 3. Retina layer= innermost a. Where receptor cells converted environment EN-> neuro en b. Modified at the front- ciliary bodies i. Job of C bodies= pull and stretch the zomula for near vision ii. C bodies lose elastically overtime-> need for reading glasses c. Has 3 different layers itself i. Ganglion cells ii. Bipolar cell layer iii. Photoreceptor layer: neurons that transduce light energy into neruo activity Optic disk- at the back of the eye o Essentially a blind spot- very few receptors are here o Where ganglion cells exit the eye Rod and cons o Roda) scotopic light- lets you see in near dark conditions Primary on the side of the eye- peripheral of the eye Insensitive to colors o Cons) phototropic light conditions- let you see in normal/ fairly normal light conditions Primarily located in the back of the eye- fovea Fovea= all cones- detects fine details Sensitive to colors o 2 different type of ganglion cells send color info to the brain: R/G cand B/Y Duplex retina: each eye has two retinas- on for the R brain and one for the L brain: “2 brains in each eyeball” Photopigments: Vit A+ a protein- only exist when there is no light stimuli, because once they are stimulated it divides Bleached cells= cells that are divided: increase in % of bleached cells decreases how sensitive we are too light Eye movement Saccadic: abrupt shift of gaze from point A to B vergence: both eyes remain fixed on the same target Pursuit movements: tracking Negative afterimages= images seen after staring at something for a long time- consists of complementary colors of the physical stimuli (that you are re-seeing) Color blindness- 3 common types protanopia) lack or R cones deuteranopia) green cones filled with red instead tritanopia) see world in G+R: B cons lost for some reason o Chemical senses: taste and smell= chemosenses o Taste: gustation Taste receptors are arranged in a certain way on the tongue Initially found in lots of places: cheek, tongue, pharynx, larynx- die off with age tongue To: lots of them on sides, front and back- few in the center The strength and preferences of the receptors change with development Temperature effects sensitivity to taste As receptors die off, the threshold changes every 20 years Adaptation= aftertaste The tongue= lateralized like the brain o Audition Sound= rhythmic pressure change of air Measured in Hertz- Hz Differ in.. o Pitch different frequencies-> different areas of the ear vibrating o Loudness/ amp/ intensity- axons differ firing rates based on frequency Timbre) perceptual dimension of sound based on complexity of sound Sound= rich mixture- complex Timb: fundamental frequency and overtime Location in environment Job of auditory cortex= analyze complex and rapid frequencies that disappear- does via pattern recognition Use relative loudness and difference in arrival time to ID location The ear Ear drum: flexible membrane that vibrates in response to sound eaves and passes vibrations onto receptor cells in inner eat o Connects to the ossicle bones Ossicle bones: 3 little bones of the middle ear o Send vibrations from drum-> cochlea Cochlea= fluid filled chamber where audition occurs o 2 openings: oval window and round window o Vibrations lead to pull on cilia which stimulates neural activity, by releasing neurotransmitters o Smell- olfaction sends info to limbic system- amygdala and limbic cortex Has 2 ndlargest number of receptors- second to visual system Odors recognized by their hue, brightness, and saturation Different odors-> different patterns by the noses receptors-> recognition of the smell Brain ID odors based off of the different patterns of activation that the olfactory bulbs trigger o Somatosenses The body senses- ability to detect change in touch vibration, pain, temperature, proprioception, muscle length, changes in head position All detected by different receptors 3 major types of receptors Skin senses) skin= innervated by dendrites o Free nerve endings= most common type of skin sensory receptor o Touch v pressure Touch) very light skin contact Pressure) sensation produced by forceful contact o 2 point threshold test measures sensitivity of skin Temp) 8-> 52 C Pain) complex sensation related to sensory stimuli and emotions o 3 types of receptors 1. High threshold mechanoreceptors- intense pressure 2. ATP sensitive receptors 3. Receptors that respond to extremes- acids, heart, spicy Internal senses) tell you what is going on internally Vertubalr senses) vestibular apparatus, semicualr canals, and vestibulr sacs- help head adjust to movement Coding mechanism o Retina= on- off o Contour coloring= lateral inhibition o Movement- stationary+ moving edges, things moving across field of vision o Sensory coding: each AP has fixed size and duration cannot be mistaken for different stimuli o Anatomical: location and type of stimuli determined by activated nerve firing- sensory coding= anatomical o Temporal coding: sensory coding in terms of time Rate= simplest form: firing increase and decreases based on intensity The rate at which neurons fire= intensity of stimuli IMPORTANT o ANS controls lens and iris via cranial nerves o The oculomotor= another nerve responsible for pupil dilation ~Chapter Summary All sensory experiences are the result of energy from events that are transduced into activity of receptor cells o Transduction-> changes in activity of axons of sensory nerves that inform the brain about environmental stimuli via 2 different coding schemes: temporal and anatomical Vision o Corena and lens of each eye cats an image of the scenes on your retina which contain rods and cons o Vision perceives that behavior of looking- moving eyes and head o Color that is cast on the retina is translated into opponent process coding- R/G and B/Y fire and sends message to the brain Audition o Translates the physical props of sounds- amp, frequency, and complexity- to loudness, pitch, and timbre for sounds ranging from 30-20,000 Hz o Different high frequency and medium frequency sounds are perceived when different parts of the basilar membrane vibrate in responses to the frequencies. Low frequencies are detected when the tip of the basilar membrane vibrates in sync with the sound-> auditory nerve to fire at that frequency o Locating source of sound Ear locates low frequency by differences in te arrival time of sound waves to each ear High frequency located by difference in the intensity of the sound- result of the sound shadow Sources of complex sound recognized by the posterior t. lobe Somatosenses o Gather several different types from different parts of the body o temp, touch, pressure, vibration, and pain- tell us about the different things that are body comes into contact with o vestibular senses help us keep our balance and produce eye movements that compensate for head movement [Chapter 5] ~Notes perception defined o def: process of responding to info that sensory organs provide and gives united ant coherence to sensory input allows us to understand what sensory systems are telling us and then respond o the process of becoming aware of the external world through info gathered by the sense organs o distal stimuli that produces physical energy-> sensory receptor-> irritation and neuo energy which produces a proximal stimuli- physical energy in you perception can lead to learning which leads back to perception proximal stimuli= your reaction to the stimuli- physical energy in you perception overview o nativities: you are born with it- if you don’t have it you aren’t going to get it ex= Descartes o empiricists: perception= learned/ active process you= sum product of all your perceived experiences active process of testing hyptho of the world ex= Helmholtz visual perception: brain mechanisms o eyes= photoreceptors but the brain does the perception eyes-> primary visual cortex-> visual association cortex visual perception occurs at the visual association cortex: where objects and entire visual scenes are perceived- combos info sent to the primary visual cortex primary o Hubel and Torsten: used microelectrodes and detected that individual neurons produce AP Conclusions: visual field= location- primary visual cortex= map of retina Module= section of retina- all neurons in one module receives info from same section of retina: the increase in neuron firings in the cluster leads to a image o Primary visual cortex neurons send info to visual association cortex that then sends it to one of two systems 1. Ventral system: VAC-> inferior temporal cortex a. Function= recognition of what objects is, its form and color b. Recognizes visual patterns and IDS objects to create 3D images i. Damage-> visual agnosia c. Different regions respond to different categories of visual stimuli: i. EBA: extrastriate body: photos, silhouettes ii. PPA: prosopagnosia place area: visual scenes and backgrounds d. Color perception: damage causes cerebral achromatopsia- can’t see colors 2. Dorsal system: ascends into the posterior parietal cortex a. Function= where object is and whether it is moving- perceives spatial location : Controls visual attention, eye movements, visual control of grasping+ reaching+ pointing+ hand movements i. Guides movements and directs movements towards location objects b. Damage-> akinetopsia and disruption of perception+ remembering location of objects and control of limbs o Research on visual plasticity Experiments Birds: perception= learned Frog: perception= hard wired Kittens/ humans: limited vision lead to the need to learn how to perceive other scenes/ learn perception Molyneur; came up with the idea that visual reorganization= passive process Conclusion: perceptual learning is an active process and there is a correlation among sensory and motor organs Visual perception: objects o Objects classified as object/ figure OR background/ground Object/figure= particular shape+ location Background/ ground= help judge location of objects o Boundary= huge in object perception- define the outline of objects o Gestalt psychology: perception= whole is greater then the sum of the parts Figure ground perception: right brain especially is constantly trying to see a figure against a background 6 laws 1. Law of proximity: things close together belong together 2. Law of symmetry: symmetrical things belong together 3. Law of similarity: element with similar objects= the same object 4. Law of continuity: brain will chose the simpler outline when given 2 options & the idea that a line will follow a continuous path- no sharp turns 5. Law of closure: brain will naturally close outlines of figures 6. Law of common fate: elements that move in the same direction belong together o Models of perception: stimuli objects: small+ large come together at the same time in a pattern and are perceived in a unique way Templates: 1 way to ID stimuli- ID’s objects based off of comparison/ relevance Prototype: idealized pattern that the brain recognizes - resembles a temple but more flexible- accepts a degree of difference Distinctive feature: essentially physical features that are used to specify a certain pattern Geon- fixed set of primitive/ features detectors for certain 3D shapes PROBLEM: analysis+ synthesis happens really quickly and is something that involves a strict search for features: perception of some visual stimuli relies on some of the features that are present o Artificial intelligence- computer programs that have been created to mimic the brain The problem: brain may do task differently, computer= serial processer= slower then the brain Roles of feature and cortex o Palmer study-> idea of top down and bottom up Idea that feature and content are parallel process: one uses info from stimuli and the other uses memory Bottom up) data driven- starts with the details of stimuli on retina: info processed by hierarchy levels of the brain and then perceived Top down) knowledge driven- memory helps understand the image: top of system= brain and then sends info down to allow for perception Perception: what and where o It is clear that distinct features help us recognize objects o Vison for perception= what system Info comes from ventral system- objects and the meanings o Vison for action= were system Info comes from the dorsal system- coordinates how our movements should respond to stimuli Depth perception o Binocular) requires both eye Important cue for distance Convergence- distance between us and an object, by brain moving extraocular muscles of the eyes Retinal disparity: images at different distances fall on different parts of the retina and the difference in retina-> perception of retina o Monocular cues) requires one eye Important cues Interposition/ superposition: 2 objects in field of vision- one blocks the other and the image that is doing the blocking= closer Relative size Linear perspective: parallel lines converge at a single point- greater convergence= greater distance Texture gradient: fine= distant and course= close Height in place Environmental: haze, shadows, horizon, motion (objects closer to us seem to move further then objects in the distance) o Culture may impact perception Linguistic relativity: idea that the language that someone speaks influences their thoughts and perceptions Constancies of visual perception: perceptual constancy= connection between experiences and learning with perception and recognition- able to ID objects based on form, size, color, brightness Motion perception: primitive o Motion= result of change in object position/movement OR change in body/eye position o Pia phenomenon: the perception of moment (That is not there) by turning lights on and off Illusions: misinterpretation of our perceptual world during active hypothesis testing- occur when we accept the incorrect hypth o Types: induced movement (little things= more likely to move then big things) & frame of reference (effects how you see things) & VW illusion (smaller cars make you think that they are further away, therefore a head on crash is more likely to happen) ~Chapter Summary visual info proceeds from the retina to the thalamus and then to the primary visual cortex neural circuits within each module analyze specific info from their part of the visual field- orientation+ thickness of lines and movements and color 2 systems: o Ventral: visual perception of objects and color, perception of bodies/ body parts and/or scens+ background o Dorsal: perception of space, visual guided control of reaching, grasping, and manipulation & perception of motion Visual perception of objects o Perception of objects requires) 1 - ground and figure recognition Gestaly laws of proximity describe some of the ways that we distinguish figure from ground o Hypotheses about mechanism of pattern perception- visual recognition of certain shapes Brain contains templates of all shapes were perceive and we compare pattern of visual input to the templates till we find the right fit Brain has prototypes- more flexible then tapeless: collection of distinctive features Brain has feature detectors- geons Neural networks have ability to learn to recognize patterns of input o Perception impacted not only by details of stimuli (bottom-up) but also by our prior knowledge of relations to each other and our expectations (top- down) Visual perception of space and motion o Size and shape of a retinal image- 2D image- vary with location of object relative to eye-> need from depth perception for accurate perception Depth perception= perception of the locations of objects in 3D space o Factors that influence perception Culture Linguistic relativity hypth: language impacts perception- limited support Environmental features Repeated exposure-> idea that perceptual constancies may be specific to form, size, color and brightness of objects o Movement is perceived by… Objects moving relative to one another Eyes following an object across a visual field
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