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Animal Reproduction - Study Guide - Unit 1

by: Holly Folkerts

Animal Reproduction - Study Guide - Unit 1 AGS 331

Marketplace > Hawkeye Community College > Animal Science > AGS 331 > Animal Reproduction Study Guide Unit 1
Holly Folkerts


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About this Document

Quick overview of the reproductive system - History of reproductive studies - Anatomy of major organs and structures, functions - Unit 1 terminology - chapters 1-4
Animal Reproduction
Joe Humphrey
Study Guide
Animal Science, reproduction, horses, Swine, cattle, anatomy, Physiology
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Holly Folkerts on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AGS 331 at Hawkeye Community College taught by Joe Humphrey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Animal Reproduction in Animal Science at Hawkeye Community College.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Animal Reproduction – Study Guide – Unit 1 TERMINOLOGY EMBRYO: animal in the early stages of development; has not taken form (anatomical) that is recognizable as a member of a species. EMBRYOLOGY: the science dealing with the formation, growth, and structure of embryos. FOLLICLE: spherical structure within the ovary, contain an oocyte. CORPUS LUTEUM: the “yellow body” structure formed on the ovary after ovulation. FETUS: unborn young mammal – has discernable features. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION: injection of semen into the female (mechanically). EMBRYO TRANSFER: transfer of an embryo from one uterus to another. ESTROUS SYNCHRONIZATION: manipulation of the estrous cycle. IN-VITRO FERTILIZATION: conception (egg being fertilized by sperm) that occurs outside of the body. SPERMATOZOA: the male gamete consisting of a head (nucleus) and tail (flagellum) that exhibits motility when exposed to the appropriate physiological environment. OVIPAROUS VS. VIVIPAROUS OVIPAROUS: EGG-LAYERS - MAMMALS: only a few primitive exist (Australia and N. Zealand); spiny anteater & duck billed platypus. - BIRDS: includes all birds. - REPTILES: includes most reptiles, such as the crocodile, turtle, and cobra. - AMPHIBIANS: includes nearly all, such as the frog and toad. - FISH: includes most species, such as the herring, salmon, and trout. VIVIPAROUS: LIVE-BEARERS - MAMMALS: includes nearly all mammals; horse/cow/pig, human, cat/dog, dolphin, bear & kangaroo. - BIRDS: NONE - REPTILES: includes some lizards and snakes, such as the garter snake and viper. - AMPHIBIANS: includes a few species of frogs found in S. & W. Africa. - FISH: includes quite a few species are live-bearers, like sharks and guppies. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR GOALS OF ANIMAL BREEDING? - PERPETUATION OF THE SPECIES - PROVIDE FOOD - GENETIC IMPROVEMENTS: “BETTER” - ECONOMIC WEALTH/GROWTH WHAT IS REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY? - THE ABILITY AND SUCCESS OF AN ORGANISM TO REPRODUCE. Animal Reproduction – Study Guide – Unit 1 HISTORY OF REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY - 384-322 BC: Aristotle proposed the fetus originated from menstrual blood; “Father of Embryology.” - 1562: Fallopius discovered and described the oviduct; fallopian tube. - 1573: Coiter discovered and described the corpus luteum. - 1672: DeGraff discovered and described the ovulatory follicle. - 1677: Van Leeuwenhoek discovered and described spermatozoa in semen. - 1780: Spallanzani hypothesized that spermatozoa were the fertilizing agents & successfully A.I. a dog. - 1825: Dumas proved that spermatozoa were the fertilizing agents. - 1855 – PRESENT: Beginning of modern techniques. MODERN TECHNIQUES - CONTRACEPTIONS - ENDOCRINOLOGY - ESTROUS SYNCHRONIZATION - ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION - FROZEN SEMEN - EMBRYO CULTURES/TRANSFER - IN-VITRO FERTILIZATION - SEX-SELECTED SEMEN & EMBRYOS - BIOCHEMICAL PREGNANCY DETECTION - CLONING TYPES OF OVUM PRODUCTION: MONOTOCOUS & POLYTOCOUS MONOTOCOUS: - one egg is produced with each cycle - normally give birth to one offspring with each pregnancy - EXAMPLES: cow, mare, ewe, humans, etc. POLYTOCOUS: - 10 – 25 ova produced with each estrous cycle - give birth to several young with each pregnancy - EXAMPLES: sow, cat, dog, etc. FOLLICLES: BLISTER-LIKE STRUCTURES - contains ovum - produces estrogen - many follicles can be identified at various stages of growth - develop on the surface of the ovary; cow, sow, & ewe SINGLE OVULATORY FOLLICLE: COW & MARE SINGLE/DOUBLE FOLLICLES: EWE MULTIPLE FOLLICLES: SOW Animal Reproduction – Study Guide – Unit 1 OVULATION FOLLICLE SIZE MARE: 3.5 – 4.5 CM – **MEASURED IN CM’S NOT MM’S** SOW: 8-10 MM COW: 16-20 MM EWE: 5-7 MM ROUGH, JAGGED EDGES ON FOLLICLE: unfinished, not as good to breed; follicle should be smooth. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OVARY: PRIMARY SEX ORGAN - 2 bean shapes/rounded - houses and releases eggs (female gamete) - produces hormones: estrogen and progesterone STRUCTURES: CORTEX (OUTSIDE) & MEDULLA (INSIDE) - EXCEPTION: with mares these structures are reversed, the medulla (outside) and cortex (inside); ovulation occurs inside the ovulation fossa, whereas, ovulation in other species occurs from various points on the outside of the uterus. CORPUS HEMORRHAGICUM (CH): “BLOODY BODY” - blood clot formed after follicle ruptures - bright red in color - quickly (few hours) forms corpus luteum, as a result, few are ever observed CORPUS LUTEUM (CL): “YELLOW BODY” - yellow body that protrudes from the ovary - produces progesterone - forms in the place of an ovulated follicle CORPUS ALBICANS (CA): “WHITE BODY” - white body formed in the degenerative process of the corpus luteum - scar-like structures OVIDUCT: SITE OF FERTILIZATION - “fallopian tube” - connects ovary to uterus - ciliated and muscular - transports the ova and spermatozoa in opposite directions - unfertilized eggs are absorbed - fertilized egg remains for 5-6 days 3 STRUCTURES OF THE OVIDUCT Animal Reproduction – Study Guide – Unit 1 INFINDIBULUM AMPULLA ISTHMUS INFINDIBULUM: “CATCHERS MIT” - fimbriated - funnel-shaped - catches released egg AMPULLA - thick portion of the oviduct - occupies half of the length of the oviduct - many fern-like mucosal folds - ampullary-isthmic junction - generally ill-defined - mares: control point – only fertilized oocytes pass ISTHMUS - thicker muscular wall - fewer mucosal folds - transports oocytes & spermatozoa to the site of fertilization - these move in opposite directions UTEROTUBAL JUNCTION (UTJ): CATTLE: regulates movement of the embryo in the uterus - “kinks” SWINE: prevents excessive #’s of sperm from reaching ampulla - prevents polyspermy: two sperm fertilizing 1 ovum resulting in death of ovum UTERUS: LARGEST FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN - 2 horns; pregnancy is carried in the horns - provides protection and nourishment for developing fetus - hormone production BICORNUATE: COW, SOW, MARE – has well developed uterine horns SIMPLEX: HUMANS – uterine horns not developed CARUNCLES: RUMINANTS - surface of the endometrium has small, non-glandular areas that protrude from the surface - highly vascularized - will give rise to maternal portion of the placenta ENDOMETRIAL FOLDS: NON-RUMINANTS - provide the uterine surface for development of placenta Animal Reproduction – Study Guide – Unit 1 CERVIX - in most farm species it is 5-10 cm in length - prevents microbial contamination in the uterus - during pregnancy mucus thickens into a gel-like plug - barrier to bacteria mucus plug is very important during pregnancy - removal of this plug = chance of abortion - provides lubrication by mucus secretion - viscosity of cervical secretions changes based on point of estrous COWS & EWES - transverse locking rings to seal from contamination - serves as a sperm reservoir & filters dead sperm SOW - site of semen deposition - corkscrew shape MARES - more open than other species - longitudinal folds - folds protrude into the vagina & can be palpated to estimate stage in cycle 1. Diestrus - closed tightly, place in color 2. Coming into Estrus - swollen red, relaxed 3. Estrus - red due to increased blood flow, very relaxed 4. Pregnant - very tightly closed to keep foreign bodies out VAGINA: ORGAN OF COPULATION - site of semen deposition - passage of offspring during parturition - during high estrus, thickening of the epithelium occurs for protection URETHRA - opening where the urinary system opens into the reproductive tract MARE: TRANSURETHRAL FOLD – flap of skin/tissue covering the urethral opening Animal Reproduction – Study Guide – Unit 1 COW & SOW: SUBURTEHTRAL DIVERTICULUM – an out-pocketing of tissue located just beneath the urethra that forms a blind pouch with probably no functional significance. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT: A SERIES OF INTERCONNECTED TUBES. - OVIDUCTS - UTERUS - CERVIX - VAGINA EACH TUBE IS ORGANIZED IN CONCENTRIC LAYERS. - SEROSA (OUTERMOST LAYER) - MUSCULARIS - SUBMUCOSA - MUCOSA (INNERMOST LAYER) SEROSA: a single cell layer of squamous (flattened) cells that cover the reproductive tract. - the “outer layer” MUSCULARIS: the smooth muscular layer of the wall of various contractile organs. - usually double layer - provides the ability to contract - outer: longitudinal - inner: circular SUBMUCOSA: layer of varying thickness depending upon anatomical location. - houses the blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics MUCOSA: secretory layer of the epithelium lining of the lumen. - different function depending upon region of the tract located - oviduct…ciliated & non-ciliated - produce fluids & move materials along - posterior vagina…stratified squamous epithelium - protection during copulation


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