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General Psych. 1560- Dr. Fry. Completed Study Guide for First Test

by: Mariella Marino

General Psych. 1560- Dr. Fry. Completed Study Guide for First Test 1560

Marketplace > Youngstown State University > Psychology (PSYC) > 1560 > General Psych 1560 Dr Fry Completed Study Guide for First Test
Mariella Marino

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This study guide is completed and correct.
General Psychology
Dr. Rick Fry
Study Guide
Psychology, youngstownstate, Generalpsych, rickfry, firsttest, Studyguide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mariella Marino on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Rick Fry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 264 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Youngstown State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
st Review for 1 T est   1. What 2 related concepts are included in the definition of psychology?  SCIENCE AND BEHAVIOR 2. What are overt and covert behavior?  OVERT = BEHAVIOR THAT CAN BE SEEN. COVERT = CANNOT BE SEEN 3. Know and describe the 4 goals in science of: description, explanation, prediction, and modification. 4. How does pseudoscience differ from science?  DESCRIPTION­ DESCRIBE THE BEHAVIOR. EXPLANATION­ EXPLAIN WHY IT IS HAPPENING. PREDICTION­ PREDICT NEXT/FUTURE BEHAVIORS. MODIFICATION­ MODIFY THE BAHVIOR OF THE INDIVIDUAL OR SOCIETY IN ORDER TO MAKE IT BETTER, WORSE, ETC. 5. Which philosophic view, sees human beings as machines which can be understood as a collection of their  individual parts?  MECHANISM 6. Who is considered to be the founder of psychology?  WILLIAM WUNDT 7. What school of psychology had as its goal understanding the elements of consciousness?  FUNCTIONALISM 8. What method requires subjects to report their raw, unfiltered sensations of their conscious experience?  INTROSPECTION 9. What point of view argues that the contents of the mind are difficult to understand as a collection of  separate parts because the content is ever changing?  STRUCTURALISM 10. What point of view argues that consciousness may never be analyzed as a collection of parts because it can  only be understood as a whole?  GESTALT 11. Be able to identify examples of each of these perspectives: biological, cognitive, psychodynamic,  humanistic, social/cultural.  BIOLOGICAL­ SPINAL CORD, BRAIN. EXAMPLE, MRI. COGNITIVE­ REMEMBERANCE,  SIGNIFICANCE, KNOWING. PSYCHODYNAMIC­ ID, EGO, SUPEREGO, FREUD, DESIRES,  WISHES, SUBCONCIOUS. HUMANISTIC­ OPTIMISM, HAPPINESS, CARL ROGERS.  SOCIAL/CULTURAL­ PEOPLE ACT THE WAY THEY DO BECAUSE OF THE SOCIETY AND/OR  CULTURE AROUND THEM. 12. What is it called when psychologists embrace & selectively choose among the many perspectives.  ELECTISISM 13. When psychologists go to graduate school to receive advanced training in research methodology and  theory, they are qualified to earn what degree? PH.D. 14. What degree to psychiatrists hold? M.D. 15. Data which are reliably observed are called? EMPIRICAL DATA 16. When sciences ask questions that can be answered by the collection of empirical data, they are asking what  kind of questions? TESTABILITY 17. Reliance on observable data defines the scientific criterion of (fill in the blank). EMPERICISM 18. The idea that human behavior is ultimately understandable & predictable has its basis in the scientific  criteria of (fill in the blank). DETERMINISM 19. Research which is performed to satisfy curiosity or to answer theoretical questions is called (fill in the  blank) research BASIC RESEARCH 20. Be able to identify examples of basic and applied research. BASIC­ FINDING OUT WHY THE SKY IS BLUE. APPLIED­ FINDING THE PROPER DRUG FOR A  DEPRESSED PATIENT. 21. When everyone in a population has an equal chance of being included in a research sample, the researcher  is selecting what kind of sample? RANDOM SAMPLE 22. Be able to identify a positive and negative correlation, as well as the strength of the correlation. POSITIVE CORRELATION­ WHEN THE TWO SUBJECTS ARE GOING IN THE SAME DIRECTION WHETHER UP OR DOWN. EX.) HIGH TEMPS = HIGH SALES OF ICE CREAM. NEGATIVE  CORRELATION­ WHEN THE TWO SUBJECTS ARE GOING IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS. EX.)  HIGH TEMPS = LOW AMOUNT OF CLOTHING. DIRECTION = (­) (+). IF A NUMBER HAS A (­) IS  FRONT OF IT, SUCH AS ­.89, IT IS A HIGHER CORRELATION THAN +.67 BECAUSE (.89) IS A  HIGHER NUMBER. THE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE SIGN ONLY SIGNIFIES WHERE THE  NUMBER IS HELD ON A GRAPH. 23. Be able to identify a: case study, participant observation, experimental and correlational research. CASE STUDY­ INDEPTH RESEARCH ON ONE PARTICULAR PERSON/SUBJECT. EX.) SERIAL  RAPIST. PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION­ EXPERIMENTER BECOMES PART OF THE STUDY. EX.)  EXPERIMENTER BECOMES A PART OF A GANG HE IS OBSERVING. EXPERIMENTAL­ AN INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE ARE BEING MEASURED  FOR CAUSE AND EFFECT. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH­ RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO SUBJECTS.. 24. Be able to identify independent & dependent variables. INDEPENDENT­ MANIPULATED BY RESEARCHER/EXPERIMENTER DEPENDENT­ CAN BE MANIPULATED BY RESEARCHER 25. Be able to identify examples of extraneous variables. EXTRA VARIABLES IN AN EXPERIMENT THAT HAVE NO EFFECT ON THE RESULT 26. What measure assesses the degree to which a group of scores are spread about the mean. STANDARD DEVIATION 27. What field attempts to explain behavior and mental processes in terms of physiological & genetic factors? BIOPSYCHOLOGY 28. What part of the nervous system regulates the involuntary activity of the internal organs and glands? AUTONOMIC 29. What is the sympathetic nervous system? IN THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM 30. The brain and spinal cord are the two main components of the (fill in the blank). CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) 31. What are dendrites? FIBERS BRANCHING OUT FROM THE CELL BODY THAT RECEIVE INFO AND SEND IT TO  THE REST OF THE NEURON 32. Is there any loss of strength in the action potential as it travels down the axon? NO 33. Know what determines whether a neuron will fire i.e., is it input from one neuron or many. Many different neurons' axons are attached to the neuron and the culmination of all of their input  determines whether an action potential (the neuron "firing") occurs. 34. How does synaptic transmission occur? First, the neurotransmitter must be synthesized and stored in vesicles so that when an action potential  arrives at the nerve ending, the cell is ready to pass it along to the next neuron. 35. What is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter? GABA 36. What neurotransmitter has been implicated in both Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia? DOPAMINE 37. What are the consequences of low serotonin levels? LACK OF DESIRE, SLEEPY, DEPRESSED. 38. How were Broca and Wernicke’s area discovered? A FRENCH NEUROLOGIST, PAUL BROCA DISCOVERED THIS DAMAGE ON THE LEFT  HEMISPHERE OF THE BRAIN AFTER A PATIENT WITH THIS DISABILITY DIED. WERNICKE’S  WAS DISCOVERED AS GERMAN NEUROLOGIST, CARL WERNICKE’S FOUND THIS PART OF  THE LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE DAMAGED LEADING TO A LACK IN UNDERSTANDING  LANGUAGE. 39. What are the functions of the medulla? CONTROLS BREATHING, HEART RATE, VOMMITING, AND SALIVATION. REFLEXES. 40. What are the parts of the hindbrain? MEDULLA PONS RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS) CEREBELLUM 41. What is the function of the reticular activating system (RAS)? SEND MESSAGES TO THE CORTEX WHICH HELPS MAINTAIN THE AROUSAL LEVEL,  MAKING THE CORTEX READY TO PROCESS AND RECEIVE INFO. 42. What part of the brain controls the endocrine system through its effects on the pituitary gland? THE HYPOTHALAMUS 43. What are the parietal lobe, occipital lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe? PARIETAL­ CONTAINS THE MAJOR RECEIVING AREA FOR SENSORY INPUTS OCCIPITAL­ VISUAL PROCESSING, PRIMARY SENSORY ARE FOR VISION FRONTAL­ MAIN SOURCE OF BRAIN COMMANDS TO MOVE MUSCLES TEMPORAL­ PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX. FOR HEARING 44. What parts of the body control the largest area of the somatosensory cortex? LIPS AND FINGERS 45. What would be the effects of damage to the prefrontal cortex? SHORT TERM MEMORY LOSS, CHANGE IN ATTENTION 46. Split­brain patients have surgery which involves which part of the brain? CORPUS CALLOSUM 47. What stage of sleep would you see 70 to 80% delta waves? STAGE 4 48. In what stage of sleep is it difficult to awaken someone and when you finally get them awake they are  confused and disoriented? STAGE 4 49. What are characteristics of REM sleep? DREAMS, SLEEPER IS ABOUT TO WAKE UP 50. In what age do people have the greatest percentage of REM sleep? NEWBORN BABIES 51. What is it called when the dreamer is aware they are dreaming? LUCID DREAMING 52. What are manifest and latent content? MANIFEST­ DREAMING AND REMEMBERING IT FOLLOWED BY TELLING SOMEONE.  LATENT­ UNDERLYING MEANING OF THE DREAM BASED ON NEEDS AND DESIRES BURIED IN THE UNCONSCIOUS.  53. What are the activation­synthesis hypothesis, mental consolidation, mental housekeeping, problem solving  and psychodynamic theories of dreams? ACTIVATION­SYNTHESIS­ ACTIVITY IN THE PONS ACTIVATES CORTICAL CELLS, DREAMS  RESULT FROM THE BRAINS ATTEMPT TO INTERPRET ACTIVITY. MENTAL CONSOLIDATION­  PROBLEM SOLVING­  54. What is the mean, median, mode, and range? MEAN­ AVERAGE OF THE DATA  MEDIAN­ THE MIDDLE SCORE OF DATA MODE­ THE NUMBER THAT APPEARS MOST FREQUENTLY IN DATA 55. What is a measure of variability? HOW SPREAD OUT THE DATA IS 56. What are descriptive statistics? MEAN, MEDIAN MODE. THE SUMMARY OF THE DATA. 57. What are inferential statistics? MAKE PREDICTIONS ABOUT POPULATIONS BASED ON SAMPLES 58. What is informed consent? PARTICIPANTS MUST BE INFORMED OF THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH.  


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