Biology 103 Exam I Study Guide
Biology 103 Exam I Study Guide 70916 - BIOL 103 - 001
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by AubreyRose on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 70916 - BIOL 103 - 001 at George Mason University taught by Gwendolyne Y Fondufe (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Ch. 1 OrganelleVarious subdivided functional compartments in a eukayotic cell. CellThe lowest level of structure in the hierarchy of biological organization that can perform all activities required for life. TissueThis is made up of similar cells that perform a specific function. OrganThe lever of order in an organism made up of tissues. Organ systemThe level of order consisting of several organs that cooperate in a specific function OrganismAn individual living thing PopulationAll the individuals of a particular species living in an area. Community the entire array of organisms in an ecosystem. (plants, animals, and fungi) EcosystemThe level of organization which consists of all organisms living in a particular area BiosphereAll of the environments on earth that support life. BiologyThe scientific study of life. ProducersThe providers of food for a typical ecosystem ConsumersOrganisms in an ecosystem that eat plants and other animals. DecomposersOrganisms in an ecosystem that act as recyclers, changing complex matter into simpler chemicals that plants can absorb and use. Systems biology The study of a biological system and the modeling of its dynamic behavior by analyzing the interactions of its parts Gene The units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring. They are grouped into very long DNA molecules called chromosomes and control all the activities of a cell. 7 properties of living things: 1. Order life is typified through different levels of complex organization. (Ex. Cell>Tissue>Organ) 2. Reproduction Organisms create, or reproduce, their own kind and, in turn, pass down inherent traits. 3. Growth and development When offspring are produced, they inherit information in the form of DNA in order to control their growth and development 4. Energy Processing when organisms use stored chemical energy to power its own activities (ex. A caterpillar eating a leaf) 5. Regulation an organism is created with certain functions, or mechanisms, in order to keep them stable in their environment (ex. A human sweating when they exercise in order to maintain a temperature that doesn't harm their body) 6. Response to the Environment All organisms respond to environmental stimuli. (ex. When a Venus flytrap snaps closed after a fly lands on it.) 7. Evolutionary adaptation when a type of organism makes adaptations to its DNA over time (through reproduction) in order to develop traits best suited to their environment. (ex. When, over time, the newer generations of snowy owls develop white feathers in order to blend in with the snow.) Emergent Properties At each higher level of order, new properties arise that weren't in the preceding level. Q/A Question: Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list: cell, organism, organ, organ system, tissue, cells, and organelles? Answer: Organism, because it is the highest level of organization in the list. Since "the whole is equal the sum of it's parts," the organism would have each of the other levels within itself. Difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells: Prokaryotic Cells: were the first to evolve and were Earth's sole inhabitants for more than 1.5 billion years. A prokaryotic cell is usually much simpler and much smaller than a eukaryotic cell. It does NOT have a nucleus or other organelles, but it DOES have a membrane and DNA. Eukaryotic Cells: These evolved from prokaryotic ancestral cells about 1.8 billion years ago. It is subdivided by membranes into various functional compartments called organelles. The most important organelle is the nucleus, which houses the DNA. DNA genetic material Difference between nutrient flow and energy flow in an ecosystem: Nutrient flow: The most basic chemicals necessary for life Carbon Dioxide(CO2) Water (H2O) and other various minerals cycle within an ecosystem from the air and soil to plants, to animals, and decomposers, then back to the air and soil. It is constantly recirculating. Energy Flow: Light energy from the sun is absorbed by photosynthesizers and converted into the chemical energy of sugars and other complex molecules. It is then passed through a series of consumers, and then to decomposers, powering each organism in turn. Some energy is converted into heat, which is then lost from the ecosystem. Energy enters the ecosystem as Light, and exits as Heat. Q/A Question: Until recently organisms were divided into 5 kingdoms. What are the five kingdoms? Answer: Fungi, Anamalia, Plantae, Protista (singlecelled Eukaryotes), and Monera (prokaryotes) The 2 Dimensions of Biology "Horizontal" This spans across the great diversity of organisms existing now and over the long history of life on earth. "Vertical" The size scale that stretches from molecules to the biosphere. The 3 domains of organisms BacteriaThe most widespread and diverse prokaryotes on the planet. ArchaeaProkaryotes that can live in Earth's extreme environments. EukaryaA domain in which the organisms contain eukaryotic cells. The Kingdoms within Eukarya Protists A group of mostly singlecelled organisms in the eukarya domain. PlantaeOrganisms in he eukarya domain consisting of plants, which produce their own food by photosynthesis. AnimaliaA Eukaryotic group whose members mostly decompose the remains of dead organisms and organic wastes and to absorb the nutrients into their cells. FungiOrganisms from the eukarya domain that obtain food by eating other organisms. Evolution is the core theme of Biology. True/False Evolution: the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. Darwin's theory of natural selection OBSERVATION #1: Individuals in a population vary in traits, many of which are inherited from parents to offspring (Individual Variation). OBSERVATION #2: All species can produce far more offspring than the environment can support. Competition for resources (Overproduction of offspring). INFERENCE #1: Individuals with heritable traits best suited to the local environment are more likely to survive and reproduce over less wellsuited individuals (Unequal Reproductive Success). INFERENCE #2: Due to unequal reproductive success over time, a higher and higher proportion of individuals in the population will have the advantageous traits(Accumulation of Favorable Traits Overtime). Natural Selection The greater likelihood of members of a species to survive and reproduce over those who are less suited for their environment. Process of the editing mechanism of Natural selection 1. A population has varied inherited traits. 2. Individuals with certain traits are eliminated and the survivors reproduce. 3. There is an increased frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success. The difference between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning used to come up with ways to test a hypothesis, usually an "If...Then" or "If......And.....Then" statement. Inductive reasoning a way of collecting and analyzing a large number of specific observations based on generalizations. Ex. The conclusion "all organisms are made of cells" based on two centuries of biological specimen observation. Qualitative data v. Quantitative data Qualitative Descriptive. Ex. Documented field notes, photographs, and videos Quantitative Numerical measurements ("quantity") that can be distributed into tables and graphs. Hypothesis v. Theory Hypothesis A proposed explanation for a set of observations, which leads to predictions that can be tested by making additional observations or performing additional experiments. Theory A proposed explanation that is much broader in scope than a hypothesis and is supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence. To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be testable. True/False Q/A Question: Why is it difficult to draw a conclusion from an experiment that does not have a control? Answer: In a controlled experiment, the two groups differ only in the one factor the experiment is designed to test, eliminating other uncertain factors. Controlled experiment: An experiment designed to compare an experimental group with a control group. The scope of science is limited to the study of structures and processes that that can be directly observed and measured. Hypotheses about supernatural forces are outside the bounds of science. True/false Science The process of applying knowledge in order to understand NATURAL phenomena. Technology the process of applying scientific knowledge for a certain purpose in order to improve the standard of living Ch. 14 Speciation the process by which one species splits into two or more species Species From the Latin word for "kind" or "Appearance". There are several different ways to define a species. Biological species concept a species is defined as a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring. Morphological species concept classification is based mainly on physical traits, such as shape, size, and other features of morphology(form). It has been used to identify most of the 1.8 million species that have been named to date and can be applied to sexual organisms, asexual organisms and fossils. Information on interbreeding is not necessary. Ecological species concept this identifies species based in terms of their ecological niches. It focuses on unique adaptations to particular roles in a biological community. Phylogenetic species concept a species is defined as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor and thus form one branch on the tree of life. Reproductive isolation this prevents genetic exchange (gene flow) and maintains a boundary between species. Hybrid the resulting offspring when some pairs of clearly distinct species occasionally interbreed. Ex. The "Grolar" bear is a hybridization of the grizzly bear and the polar bear. Q/A Question: Which species concepts could you apply to both asexual and sexual reproduction? Answer: All concepts EXCEPT for the biological species concept because the ability to interbreed is an important factor when deciding a species for that concept. Reproductive barriersbiological features of the organism that prevent individuals of a different species from interbreeding. Prezygotic barriers barriers that prevent mating or fertilization between species Type of Isolation: Habitat lack of opportunities to encounter each other. These species are not necessarily separated by obvious physical barriers. They can occupy different habitats in the same area. Ex. A species of snake that lives on land cannot mate with one that lives mainly in water. Temporal breeding at different times or seasons. Ex.One species of skunk may mate in late winter while the other breeds in the fall. Behavioral Failure to send or receive the appropriate signals. Ex. Two different species of birds could have two entirely different courtship rituals or songs. Mechanical physical incompatibility of reproductive parts. Ex. One flower may be pollinated by birds with long, curved bills while the other is pollinated by birds with short, straight bills. Gametic molecular incompatibility of eggs and sperm or pollen and stigma. Hen sea urchins release their gametes into the water, surface proteins prevent gametes of red urchins from binding with those of purple urchins. Postzygotic barriers barriers that operate after hybrid zygotes have formed. Reduced hybrid viabilityInteraction of parental genes impairs the hybrids development or survival. Reduced hybrid fertilityHybrids are vigorous but cannot produce viable offspring. Hybrid breakdownHybrids are viable and fertile, but their offspring are feeble and sterile. Two closely related fish live in the same lake, but one feeds along the shoreline and the other is a bottom feeder in deep water. This is an example of Habitat isolation, which is a prezygotic barrier. Allopatric Speciation The initial block of gene flow due to a geographic barrier that isolates a population. Sympatric Speciation A new species arises within the same geographic area as its parent species. In sympatric speciation, certain factors can reduce gene flow between populations. 1. Polyploidy when the cells of a species have more than two complete pairs of chromosomes. 2. Habitat Differentiation If the species had separated homes, mating between the populations would become rare, isolating their gene pools as each population becomes accustomed to a different resource. 3. Sexual Selection Females choose mates based on a certain characteristic (Ex. coloration) that could reproductively isolate populations. Polyploidy can occur within a species by selffertilization. True/False A sterile hybrid can reproduce asexually, most commonly in plants. Failure of chromosomes to divide after cell division could double the number of chromosomes in a cell from diploid to tetraploid. True/false Self fertilization in tetraploid plants produces plants that are sterile and cannot reproduce with other tetraploids. True/False If selffertilization occurs, the resulting tetraploid plants would develop into plants that can reproduce fertile tetraploid offspring by selffertilization or by mating with other tetraploids. NOTE: a tetraploid CANNOT produce fertile offspring with a parent plant. Q/A Question: Why is the formation of a tetraploid an instantaneous speciation event? Answer: Because the new species, which is reproductively isolated from its parent species, is produced in one generation. Most polyploidy species arise from hybridization of two different species. True/False 1. Haploid gametes from two species combine, creating a sterile hybrid 2. The hybrid may reproduce asexually 3. Subsequent errors in cell division may produce chromosome duplications that result in a diploid set of chromosomes. Infertile hybrid plants cannot reproduce asexually. True/False See figure 14.6A in the textbook Polyploidy has never been observed in animals. True/False Ex. The Gray tree frog NOTE: sympatric speciation is MORE LIKELY to occur in animals through habitat differentiation or sexual selection. Sympatric speciation commonly occurs through Polyploidy in plants, but is more likely to occur through habitat differentiation or sexual selection in animals. Bread wheat is a polyploid as a result of hybridization. True/False. See figure 14.7in the textbook Most species on Earth are thought to have evolved from sympatric speciation. True/False Adaptive RadiationThe evolution of many diverse species from a common ancestor. isolated island chains provide opportunities for adaptive radiations Completely isolated on the island, the founder population may have changed significantly as natural selection adapted it to the new environment, and thus it became a new species. From there, a few individuals could migrate to another island and changed through natural selection to form another new species. Darwin’s finches are an example of adaptive radiation. True/False Hybrid Zone a region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some hybrid offspring. The Three Possible outcomes of a hybrid zone Reinforcement When hybrid offspring are less fit than members of both parent species, natural selection will STRENGTHEN reproductive barriers, reducing the formation of unfit hybrids. Fusion When the reproductive barriers between species are WEAK, and the species come into contact in a hybrid zone. Stability When many hybrid zones are fairly strong, yet hybrids continue to be reproduced anyway. Multiple choice When hybrids produced in a hybrid zone can interbreed with each other and with both parent species, and they survive and reproduce as well as members of the parent species, one would predict that a) the hybrid zone would be stable b) sympatric speciation would occur c) reinforcement of reproductive barriers would keep the parent species separate d) reproductive barriers would lessen and the two parent species would fuse C: looking at reinforcement, you can see the reproduction of offspring. Punctuated Equilibria v. Gradual Patterns of Speciation Punctuated Equilibria long periods of little change, interrupted by brief periods of sudden change. Gradual Patterns of Speciation species can diverge gradually from the original species over a long period of time. Q/A Question: Can factors that cause sympatric speciation also cause allopatric speciation? Answer: Yes, Factors such as polyploidy, sexual selection, and habitat specialization can lead to reproductive barriers that would separate the gene pools of allopatric as well as sympatric populations. Ch. 15 Macroevolution the major events in the history of life on Earth. The continents and seafloors form a thin layer of planet Earth called the Crust which covers a hot material called the mantle. Plate Tectonics Earth's crust is divided into giant, irregularly shaped plates that essentially float on the underlying mantle. Continental Drift A process where movements in the mantle cause the plates to shift. Pangaea 250 million years ago, plate movements brought all previously seperated land masses together into a super continent. Laurasia After the first Pangaean split, this was the northern landmass. Gondwana After the first Pangaean split, this was the southern landmass. The continents stopped drifting about 65 million years ago. True/False The continents are still drifting now. They are the cause for earthquakes and volcanoes. Mass Extinctions When global changes are so massive and disruptive that a majority of species is swept away in a relatively short amount of time. The Permian extinction about 251 million years ago, between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, about 96% of marine species were claimed, while it took a toll on terrestrial species as well. Causes of mass extinctions Enormous volcanic eruptions Reduced temperature differences between the equator and the poles, leading to an oxygen deficit Human actions Mass extinctions can decimate a thriving and complex ecological community, and it can take 5 10 million years for the diversity of life to return to previous levels. Q/A Question: Over the past 500 million years, how many mass extinctions have occurred Answer: So far there have been five, but a sixth may be under way due to global warming and the effects of other human actions. According to fossil record mammals underwent dramatic adaptive radiation after the extinction of dinosaurs. True/False See figure 15.10 in the textbook "EvoDevo" The study of how slight genetic changes can become magnified into major morphological differences between species. Paedomorphosis he retention in the adult of body structures that were juvenile features in an ancetsral species. See figure 15.11A in the textbook, the paedomorphic salamander Phylogeny The evolutionary history of a species or group of species. Homologies Similarities due to shared ancestry. The structures may look different and function differently, but they exhibit fundamental similarities because they evoloved from the same structure in an ancestral species. Convergent Evolution Species from different evolutionary branches may come to resemble one another if they live in similar environments and natural selection has favored similar adaptations. Analogy Similarity due to convergent evolution Human forearms and a bat’s wings are homologous. A bat’s wings and a bee’s wings are analogous. Taxonomy The system of naming and classifying species SystematicsA discipline of Biology that focuses on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships Taxon Each taxonomic unit at any level. Phylogenetic tree it depicts hypotheses about the evolutionary history of species. Binomial A twopart name that biologists assign each species. 1st: the Genus, 2nd: the "specific epithet" Q/A Question: If you are given the scientific name of an organism (such as Musca domestica), can you tell which word indicates the genus and which word indicates the species? Answer: Yes, the genus would be Musca and the species or "specific Epithet" would be Domestica. the subcategories in the classification system (From most inclusive to least inclusive) Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Cladistics The most commonly used method in systematics to predict evolutionary history Clades groups of species that include an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic "Single Tribe" Ancestral Characteristics v. Shared Derived Characteristics Ancestral Characteristics A characteristic shared in the ancestor of each of the descendants. Shared Derived Characteristics An evolutionary novelty unique to mammals. If you were using cladistics to build a phylogenetic tree of cats, which would be the best choice for an outgroup? a) tiger b) domestic cat c) lion d) leopard e) wolf E: the wolf is the furthest species away from the cat family, therefore it is "out" of the group, or an outgroup. Outgroup A species from a lineage that is known to have diverged from the characteristics of the main group. Q/A Question: What is the importance of parsimony in constructing phylogenetic trees? Answer: parsimony allows scientist to eliminate species that don't have the same characteristics as the group they are studying, making it easier to link them to species with more common characteristics. Parsimony The adoption of the simplest explanation for observed phenomena Phylogenetic trees are always correct and there is no need for any revision of such trees. True/False phylogenetics can allow us to make and test predictions, but they aren't always correct. Many lines of evidence support the idea that birds are a clade of reptiles. True/False See figure 15.16B in the textbook
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