Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ARH 025VL
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Art History B
Popular in Art History
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 025VL at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Norris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Art History B in Art History at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Art History Exam 1 Study Guide Note: Starting with the Proto-Renaissance, art started to look more realistic and three-dimensional than it had previously, though this varies from culture to culture. Art History examines style, iconography, function/purpose, and context of pieces of art. All of these elements are interconnected. All of these paintings, sculptures, and buildings were commissioned by a patron or donor. Proto-Renaissance Giotto: One of the first painters to take lighting and other realistic details into consideration in his paintings. He is also referred to as the “father of the Renaissance” because he started changing the style of art and made holy figures look more human. Giotto, Madonna Enthroned, 1310 -Altarpiece, intended to be located in a church, very traditional-style painting (Maniera Greca style—Style originated in the Byzantine Empire) -Medium: tempera -All medieval paintings of Baby Jesus made him look ugly because they thought He ought to re represented as a mini-man Giotto, Arena Chapel -Medium: fresco -Iconographic Program: scenes from the lives of the Virgin Mary and Jesus Giotto, Lamentation, Arena Chapel - Completely new style for that time period: no central figure, bilateral symmetry, etc. - Foreshortening was used for the angels Early Northeastern Renaissance (15 thcentury) Drastic change in style from the Proto-Renaissance—much more detail in both paintings and sculpture and oil paint was used almost exclusively. Patrons often commissioned pig paintings or sculptures in hopes that they wouldn’t be sent to hell with they died. Claus Sluter, Well of Moses, 1395-1406 -In situ, high relief sculpture, surface realism (folds in the robes of the figures, facial features, etc.) -Moses has horns because of one interpretation of his physical description in the story in which he meets God on Mount Sanai Manuscript Illumination -Became more common as more and more people began to learn to read as education became more important -Cities, not just monasteries, began founding universities, so books also became more common -Many people had a “Book of Hours”, otherwise known as a prayer book with extremely detail paintings on the pages. Many of the images in these prayer books were secular -Jean, Duke of Berry, collected Books of Hours Limbourg Bros., Les Tres Riches Heuras du Duc de Berry (The Very Sumptuous Hours of the Duke of Berry), 1413 -Painted themselves into some of the pages as courtiers Limbourg Bros., January, Les Tres…, 1413 -Big crowd at a banquet surrounding a giant fireplace -Scene from the life of the Duke Limbourg Bros., October, Les Tres…, 1413 -Scene from the life of the Duke’s serfs planting the field Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece, 1425 -Medium: oil -Triptych, lots of detail and disguised symbolism, as well as obvious symbolism, donor and his wife are painted on the outside panel -Campin painted holy figures in everyday scenes to make them seem more human. Also, the holy figures are placed in a Flemish town, rather than the town that the story actually took place in. Jan van Eych, Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 -Polyptic, 11.5’x15’ -Iconographic Program: Promise of salvation on the outside (when the panels are closed) and fulfilment of that promise on the inside -Most frequently stolen piece of art -Several figures both on the inside and outside of the painting are done in grisaille -New concept of atmospheric perspective -Eucharist is represented by the sacrifice of a lamb Jan van Eych, Arnolfini Portrait, 1434 -Additive composition -Three functions: Portrait, exchange of wedding vows (or sacrament, which is a sacred ritual), and legal document -Mirror on the wall shows two figured that witnessed the wedding (one of whom is van Eych, who also signed his name on the wall in the painting) -Lots of disguised symbolism Jan van Eych, Man in a Red Turban, 1433 -Still in original frame with the exact date -The man’s eyes are painted with lots of emotion in them which was a completely new concept at the time -Front-facing portrait rather than a side profile -His turban looks photo-shopped onto his head -Man in the portrait is believed to be van Eych, himself Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross, 1435 (van der Weyden was a student of Campin’s and influenced by van Eych) -Painted to look like it’s in a box (like a colorful sculpture) -Integrated composition -All of the figures are showing lots of emotion -Skull in the foreground is a memento mori -Viewer is meant to feel empathy Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Portrait, 1476 -Triptych -Continuous narrative (Mary and Joseph traveling to Bethlehem, wisemen traveling to see Baby Jesus, and angels appearing to the shepherds) -Disguised symbolism (Baby Jesus laying on the ground foreshadows his crucifixion -The overall colors of the painting are rather dark, indicating a time of political unrest during that time period Early Italian Renaissance Architecture Florence, Italy: City-State, known as the Cradle of the Renaissance. Though technically a Republic, it was an oligarchy in reality Previous Medieval styles had a lot of towers and pointy windows Early Italian Renaissance style made arches common During the Italian Renaissance, people became very interested in humanism from a philosophical point of view. A hunger for knowledge started and people began looking back at old writings from the Greeks and Romans (Greco-Roman traditional writings). Brunelleschi was an influential architect of the time Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital, 1419 -Commissioned by two guilds to be an orphanage for abandoned babies -Façade is made up or arches, columns, and bays. Brunelleschi came up with the idea after studying Roman architecture for two years -All parts of architecture relate to each other Brunelleschi, Santo Spirito, 1434 -Floor plan: Nave (long corridor), Transept (cross arms), Crossing (cross intersection), Side Aisle (along the outline of the church), and Side Chapels (small spaces on the outside of the side aisles) -Lots of domes and squares were used in architecture because they’re symmetrical and one part of the shape is equal to the rest of it -Arcade separates the nave from the side aisles -Shape is known as Basilican Church Note: Brunelleschi’s Revolution brought about the use of mathematics and geometry in architecture Alberti, San Andrea, 1470 -Refurbished a pre- existing building -Alberti also studied Roman architecture and incorporated the “triumphal arch” into this church -Known as the Church Triumphant -Similar to the Basilican floor plan, but there are no side aisles -Ceiling is a barrel vault, supported by piers instead of columns -Exterior reveals interioryou can get an idea of what the inside of the church looks like based on the outside Alberti vs. Brunelleschi -Alberti studied Vitruvius (Roman architect) and used his theories, then made his own theories -Brunelleschi also studied Roman architecture, but no to the same extent -Alberti said that mathematics and geometry are the foundations of beauty Terms To Know: (from the list on D2L) Tempera: type of paint made with water, egg yolk, and pigment Altarpiece: Painting meant to be located at the altar in a church and meant to reinforce some bit of church doctrine Maniera Greca: very flat style of painting (like Giotto’s) that originated in the Byzantine Empire Donor/Patron: rich person that hired a painter to do a piece of art Commission: contract that the patron/donor had with the painter Fresco: type of painting when the painter painted onto wet plaster so that the pigment was integrated into the wall Iconographic Program: one main theme throughout a painting or series of paintings Foreshortening: illusion that a figure is moving towards or away from the viewer In situ: when a painting is still located where is was originally intended to be Phillip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy: Big supporter of the arts Jean, Duke of Berry (Phillip’s brother): collected books of hours Manuscript Illumination: paintings to illustrate books Book of Hours: prayer book with manuscript illumination Freestanding sculpture: sculpture that stands on its own and isn’t attached to anything Relief: Sculpture carved into something—high (great detail) relief, and low (not as much detail) relief Attribute: characteristics of figures in sculptures Secular: not having any religious connotation Oil: type of painting Diptych: two panels Triptych: three panels Polyptych: more than three panels Disguised Symbolism: common objects used to symbolize something holy Grisaille: gray painting made to look like a sculpture Eucharist: Holy Communion Additive composition: space around the figures does not really make sense Integrated composition: figures are placed more naturally Memento Mori: reminder of death Continuous Narrative: story being told in the background of a painting throughout the whole thing Guild: group of merchants of the same trade that were influential in their community Humanism: interest in what it means to be a human being, from a philosophical standpoint Greco-Roman Tradition; Classicism: old writings and culture from the Greek and Roman empires Façade: front of a building Arch: an arch in a building Column: pillar that supports the arch Arcade: long row of arches Barrel Vault: type of ceiling that curves upward; extended arch Pier: wall that supports the barrel vault Basilican Church: cross-shaped churches
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